Victor Emmanuel III (11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947, spelt Vittorio Emmanuele in Italian) was a member of the House of Savoy and King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946). In addition, he claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43) which were recognized by the great powers in 1937 and 1939, respectively. During his long reign, Victor Emmanuel III saw two world wars and the birth, rise, and fall of Fascism in the Kingdom of Italy. His initial approval of the actions of Benito Mussolini and the decision to bring Italy into World War II on the side of the Axis thoroughly damaged Victor Emmanuel's credibility. One year after World War II ended, a plebiscite abolished the monarchy and brought about a republic in Italy. Victor Emmanuel had abdicated prior to the voting (so that his son Umberto II got the distinction of being Italy's final monarch, reigning for a matter of weeks), knowing how unpopular he was, but it was too little, too late. He died in exile in Egypt only one year later.