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TR TR 12 November 2016
2

Heads of State of Germany (more playing)

The head of state of Germany has changed at various times since the unification of the German Empire in 1871. The first head of state was the Emperor (Kaiser). After the Germany Empire collapsed, the Weimar Republic was formed, with the Reichspräsident ("President of Germany" in English) replacing the emperor as the German head of state. While the Weimar Constitution created a parliamentary republic, the president could dismiss the chancellor and the cabinet, even if they enjoyed support in the Reichstag. The president could also appoint a chancellor without parlimentary support.  These powers, combined with the general instability of the Republic overall, resulted in a very powerful presidency.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler attained the office of c…

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TR TR 12 November 2016
5

Head of State of France (playing around)

Throughout the majority of its history, France has been a monarchy and is generally considered to have begun with the Frankish Kingdom in 486. In 1792, Louis XVI was overthrown, and the First Republic was established. Executive authority shifted to a number of bodies throughout the First Republic, finally ending in the Consulate, which fell to the First Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (who'd previously become Consul for Life) in 1804. Napoleon was overthrown in 1814, and made an ultimately unsuccessful bid to regain the crown the following year. In the meantime, the House of Bourbon was restored.

The Bourbon Restoration lasted until the so-called July Monarchy of 1830, when Louis-Phillipe I displaced Charles X and proclaimed himself "Monarch o…

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TR TR 29 July 2011
5

Playing with presidents

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