The Monarchy of England is generally traced back to Alfred the Great (849-899), the king of Wessex, one of several kingdoms in what is now called England. After asserting Wessex's dominance over rival kingdom Mercia, Alfred proclaimed himself "King of the English". His grandson, Æthelstan, was the first monarch to reign over a unified England. However, he retained the title "King of the English".

In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy successfully conquered the entirety of England. William is generally considered to have been the first monarch to rule as "King of England" as opposed to "King of the English". In the centuries that followed, the role of the monarchy was defined and expanded. In 1542, Henry VIII was proclaimed King of Ireland. In 1603, James VI of Scotland ascended the English throne as James I of England, thereby bringing the two crowns into personal union. However, England and Scotland remained separate countries, despite James' efforts.

In 1649, after a period of civil war, Charles I was overthrown, and the monarchy replaced with a republic, called the Commonwealth, under the rule of Oliver Cromwell. The Commonwealth lasted until 1659. The monarchy was restored under Charles II of England in 1660.

The Acts of Union of 1707 officially unified the governments of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Both England and Scotland became constituent countries of the new kingdom, rather than sovereign states. This was further redefined in the Acts of Union of 1800, which were enacted after a bloody rebellion in Ireland two years prior. The country was rechristened the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, given England's prominent role in the U.K., the reigning monarch is still sometimes colloquially called the "King/Queen of England".

Ruled Britannia

In 1588, King Philip II ordered the Spanish Armada to invade England. The invading Spanish subdued the country, and imprisoned Elizabeth in the Tower of London. Philip installed his daughter, Isabella, and her husband Albert on the English throne. Their reign lasted until 1598, when the English people rose up and drove the Spanish out.

Monarch Reign House
Elizabeth Elizabeth.jpg 1558-1588 Tudor
Isabella and Albert Coupleportraitalbertisabella.jpg 1588-1598 Hapsburg
Elizabeth Elizabeth.jpg 1598-Incumbent at novel's end Tudor

Other Monarchs

Stories in the Atlantis series take place during the reigns of Henry VI, Edward IV, and Charles II. The line of English succession does not appear to have been impacted by the POD.

The short work "The Yorkshire Mammoth" references the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I, suggesting the monarchy was not altered by the POD.

In A Different Flesh, the English monarchy embraces the divine right of kings model in the 17th century. "Vilest Beast", the first story, is explicitly set during the reign if James I. Based on the timeline provided, it appears Charles I is the monarch who adopted the divine right of kings, though he is not explicitly named.

"We Haven't Got There Yet" is also set during the reign of James I. Whether that story qualifies as alternate history is debatable.

England is still a monarchy in the 21st century in Through Darkest Europe. The reigning monarch is not identified, but the incumbent prince of Wales does appear.

In Agent of Byzantium, King Oswy rules Angleland in 1315 CE, which serves as an analog of OTL England.

Historical Monarchs in Non-Monarchical Roles

In Ruled Britannia, James I is still James VI of Scotland at the end of the novel, which ends in 1598.