Empire of Brazil

Monarch Reign Succession
1 Pedro I 1822-1831  · Grandson of Maria I of Portugal
 · Son of John VI of Portugal
2 Pedro II 1831-1889 Son of Pedro I
3 Pedro III
Dona Isabel as regent
(Regency 1889-1893)
 · Grandson of Pedro II
 · Son of Dona Isabel
4 Pedro IV 1913-Incumbent at series end, 1945 Son of Pedro III

While Dom Pedro II was still very popular in 1889, he himself was in poor health and increasingly weary of the imperial system. Moreover, various factions among elite citizens had come to believe that a republic ruled by a dictator would be a superior system. Conservative were still angry that they were not compensated for the abolition of slavery in 1888. Others were horrified by the prospect that Pedro's daughter Isabel would succeed him; aside from the obvious misogyny, Isabel's husband was French, and many feared Brazil would be de facto ruled by a foreigner.

However, while the alliance systems that came to be called the Quadruple Alliance and the Quadruple Entente were still in their formative stages, each side actively courted several countries in South America. With the stark example of the Empire of Mexico, a government installed by France and supported by the Confederate States, even the most ardent republican realized the threat posed by an increasingly divided world, and were concerned that a coup might prompt other countries to intervene in Brazilian affairs.

The domestic crisis came to a head in June, 1889, when Pedro's government proposed a number reforms that would expand federalism while preserving the monarchy. The conservatives who controlled the Chamber of Deputies initially balked, believing that the military would side with republicanism. Instead, the military asserted itself as a mediator, bringing pressure on both sides. By August, the Chamber agreed to the proposed reforms, with the additional terms, including compensation for former slaveholders, increased autonomy for the military, and the removal of Isabel from the line succession in favor of her son, Pedro de Alcântara, who had just turned 14. At this stage, Pedro II involved himself in negotiations, offering to immediately abdicate so long as Isabel served regent for his grandson. The agreement reached, Pedro II abdicated on 15 November, 1889, and Prince Pedro became Pedro III.

Pedro III was mature for his age. He soon realized he had no interest in being emperor, but held the throne in the best interests of the country. His mother oversaw the reforms until he reached majority. He married shortly after, . His first son, also named Pedro, in July, 1895. The rapidity with which Pedro III secured his heir led many to believe he was anxious to abdicate as soon as possible; Pedro III proved them right.

Domestically, Brazil continued to liberalize at home, while Pedro III insured the country avoided formal entanglements with the Quadruple Alliance and the Entente. When his soon reached majority in 1913, Pedro III abdicated, and Pedro IV become Emperor of Brazil a year before the outbreak of the Great War. Through most of the war, Pedro IV kept his country neutral, although both sides actively courted him. In 1917, when it was clear that the Central Powers had the upper-hand, Dom Pedro declared war on the Entente..Brazil's entry into the war bottled-up Argentina, and cut off a valuable supply line to Britain, which helped to accelerate the Entente's capitulation.

Brazil paid a very small price for its military intervention, and gained dramatically. Though its war against Argentina continued on for a few years after the rest of the world was at peace, Brazil became a key player in South America throughout the 1920s. Nonetheless, the trauma Brazil endured, while mild by comparison, was enough to convince Dom Pedro IV to encourage his government to avoid war. Thus, a border dispute with Venezuela in the 1930s was settled peacefully. When the Second Great War broke out, both sides again courted Brazil. This time, Pedro IV's government opted for neutrality to the bitter end.

Confederate States of America

President Term Party Vice President
1 Jefferson Davis JeffDavis.jpg 1861-1868 Whig Alexander Stephens
2 Robert M.T. Hunter 1868-1874 Whig Fitzhugh Lee
3 Fitzhugh Lee 1874-1880 Whig James Longstreet
4 James Longstreet JLongstreet.jpg 1880-1886 Whig Lucius Q.C. Lamar
5 Lucius Q.C. Lamar Lamar.jpg 1886-1892 Whig James Hoge Tyler
6 James Hoge Tyler 1892-1898 Whig John W. Daniel
7 John W. Daniel 1898-1904 Whig Benjamin Tillman
8 Benjamin Tillman 1904-1910 Whig Woodrow Wilson
9 Woodrow Wilson WoodrowWilson.jpg 1910-1916 Whig Gabriel Semmes
10 Gabriel Semmes Nophoto.jpg 1916-1922 Whig William Gibbs McAdoo
11 Wade Hampton V Nophoto.jpg March-June, 1922 Whig Burton Mitchel
(Ascended to presidency)
12 Burton Mitchel Nophoto.jpg June, 1922-March, 1934 Whig Vacancy
Simon Bolivar Belknap
13 Jake Featherston Featherston.jpg March, 1934-July, 1944 Freedom Willy Knight
March, 1934-December, 1938
December, 1938-March, 1940
Don Partridge
March, 1940-July, 1944
(Ascended to presidency)
14 Don Partridge Nophoto.jpg July 7-14, 1944 Freedom Vacancy

German Empire

German Chancellor

Chancellor Term of office German Emperor
5 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg July 1909-July 1926 Wilhelm II
6 Max von Baden July 1926-October 1929
7 Kurt von Schleicher October 1929-September 1939
8 Franz von Papen September 1939- Friedrich Wilhelm V

While Chancellor Theobald von Betmann-Hollweg's foreign policy in July 1914 was one of many factors that led to the Great War in August, 1914, this policy was vindicated with hindsight by the Central Powers' victory in 1917. Further, Germany expanded its empire in Europe and Africa, cementing her place as a dominant global power. Despite his advancing age, Bethmann had the confidence of Wilhelm II, and so remained chancellor as the 1910s gave way to the 1920s. However, as Wilhelm turned his innate bellicosity towards the Americas, Germany soon found itself in conflict with the United States. In 1925, Germany elected to back Venezuela in a border dispute with Colombia; the USA backed Colombia. While the dispute didn't lead to a wider war, the alliance between Germany and the USA was badly strained, and the German people were unclear why Germany had involved itself in the Western Hemisphere and risking a war with one Germany's staunchest allies, all while Germany's enemies in Europe posed a threat. While Bethmann merely had been following Wilhelm's own (illogical) demands, he became the "face" of this foreign policy. Beleaguered, he finally resigned in July, 1926.

In an effort to prevent the unraveling of the German-U.S. alliance, various officials put forward Max von Baden, a German noble who'd become a voice for expansion of democracy in Germany, as a candidate for chancellor. While the autocratic Wilhelm was dubious, he appeared to have realized the damage his saber-rattling had done, and so appointed Baden. Baden was able to enact some liberal reforms at home, and ease some tensions with the USA, although he continued harsh rule in Belgium and the Congo The stock market crash in February, 1929 brought his reforms to a halt. Members of the Social Democratic Party (who took some cues from the Red faction of Russian Civil War) vocally demanded Wilhelm's abdication in the Reichstag. SPD members fought monarchists in the streets, as the Depression began taking its toll on the German people. His health failing, Baden resigned in October, 1929, and died the following month.

Determined to enforce stability above all else, Wilhelm approached Paul von Hindenburg about accepting the chancellorship. Acutely aware of is own age and health, Hindenburg declined, put suggested a former confidant, Kurt von Schleicher, who'd become the head of the Reichswehr's Armed Forces Department in 1928. Most importantly to Wilhelm, Schleicher believed the Army was essential to the stability of the country, and could resolve the Depression. Schleicher was also adamant that Germany must remain prepared for what he believed would be the final, decisive war in Europe against Britain, France, and the Russian Empire. While he was canny enough to realize that out-and out alienating the U.S. was a mistake, Schleicher also did little to repair the damage caused by the South American crisis.

Given carte blanche, Schleicher quickly and efficiently brought the SPD to heel. However, while he professed concern about Germany's foreign enemies, for the entirety of his term, Schleicher allowed himself to become obsessed with expanding the Army's role in German society to fight perceived enemies at home, creating a quasi-dictatorship. Schleicher was content to let Action Francaise topple the French Third Republic and install Charles XI, even though Charles was explicitly anti-German. While Germany (and the U.S.) had supported the Republic of Ireland in the 1920s, Schleicher let financial support taper off. And Schleicher saw no value involving Germany in the Spanish Civil War, even though Britain firmly and publicly backed the Nationalist faction. His colonial policies were noticeably harsher than his his predecessors, without any benefit. In the end, Schleicher was so focused with creating a martial society to fight the next war that he embittered the German people and enabled Germany's enemies. By September, 1939, Schleicher had so alienated all facets of Germany that Wilhelm had no choice but to demand his resignation. (Rumor had it that the now paranoid Wilhelm was convinced that Schleicher intended to overthrow him and take the crown.) In his place, Wilhelm appointed Franz von Papen.

While Papen was a monarchist of the old school, he was also a pragmatist, and realized Schleicher's de facto military government was not going to win wars for Germany. He concentrated more on making sure the German military was prepared, but didn't require the Army to be involved in every level of society. Throughout 1940, the European Entente, already emboldened by their unchecked aggressions, began demanding the return of territory lost to the Central Powers during the Great War. Papen refused. Tensions mounted throughout 1940 into 1941. Wilhelm fell ill in May, 1941, and the Entente grew more strident. Upon Wilhelm's death, the Entente collectively demanded Germany withdraw from territories. When Wilhelm's son and successor, Friedrich Wilhelm V, authorized Papen to refuse, the Second Great War began in Europe. Despite early set backs, Papen guided Germany to ultimate victory. His most momentous decision was to authorize the building of the superbomb.

Second Empire of Mexico

Monarch Reign Succession
1 Maximilian I 1862-1880
(Didn't actually take the throne until 1863)
Installed by Mexican monarchists with the aid of France
2 Maximilian II
(born Agustín de Iturbide y Green)
1880-1908 Adopted son of Maximilian I
3 Francisco José I 1908-1920 Son of Maximilian II
4 Maximilian III 1920-1941 Son of Francisco José I
5 Francisco José II 1941-Incumbent, 1945 Son of Maximilian III

The Second Mexican Empire was established by the Second French Empire as a client state to check the growing power of the United States. France invaded Mexico in 1861, which took place concurrently with the War of Secession. To legitimize their invasion, France invited Archduke Maximilian of Austria to assume the throne. After some vacillation, Maximilian agreed. In October 1, 1862, the nascent Confederate States won a decisive victory at the Battle of Camp Hill. France joined the United Kingdom in recognizing the new country, forcing a peace upon the U.S. With the U.S. corralled, France stepped up its efforts to support Maximilian and his conservative supporters in Mexico. Maximilian's status as the Emperor of Mexico was an open secret by 1862, and France openly announced it after the Battle of Camp Hill. France, in conjunction with he monarchist factions in Mexico, hastily organized a plebiscite in December, 1862, which "confirmed" the proclamation of empire. However, Maximilian didn't arrive in Mexico proper until 1863, in the midst of a civil war between the monarchists and the republican faction of Benito Juárez.

Maximilian had been married to Charlotte of Belgium since 1857. By 1864, it was clear that they would not have children. In 1864, the couple formally adopted Agustín de Iturbide y Green and Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán, the grandsons of Agustín de Iturbide, the sole emperor of the First Mexican Empire. While Maximilian began grooming Agustín to be his successor, this was a merely a ruse. Maximilian wanted his brother, Karl Ludwig, to provide one of his children as his heir, thereby insuring a true Hapsburg line of succession in North America, rather than have the line be diluted by the Iturbides.

By 1866, the French Empire could no longer ignore the increasing aggression of the Kingdom of Prussia, and began withdrawing troops from Mexico. The Confederate States, still somewhat beholden to France, and wanting to insure it was not encircled by hostile neighbors, stepped into the void, providing the military training and support to Maximilian's forces in their civil war against the liberals. Maximilian gladly accepted the support, even though he had to give up on many of his liberal ideals to maintain his precarious throne. The C.S. advisers had learned the value of audacious and aggressive attacks, and managed to instill these approach into some of the more receptive monarchist forces. In January 1867, monarchist forces captured Benito Juárez at Aguascalientes. In short order, the monarchists routed the Republicans, breaking them as an organized military force, though Republican guerrilla forces continued on in the north of the country.

In 1871, Maximilian realized that Karl Ludwig had no intention of sending his sons, Franz Ferdinand, to Mexico, effectively calling Maximilian's bluff. Maximilian saw no choice but to begin true earnest grooming of Agustín (and Salvador to a lesser extent) to be the next emperor. To further cement the Hapsburg line, Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I did agree to the betrothal of his daughter, Marie Valerie, to Agustín. Maximilian's health started to deteriorate throughout the 1870s. By January, 1880, he was plainly on his deathbed, and Charlotte (known by the Spanish Carlota) quietly became de facto ruler. When Maximilian I died, Agustín became emperor. In order to distance himself from his ill-fated grandfather and emphasize his nominal Hapsburg status, Agustín took the reginal name of Maximilian II.

Concurrently, the cost of the civil war had and military occupation had taken a toll on the Mexico's treasury. Moreover, the debts Mexico owed prior to the French Intervention had never been properly resolved. In 1880, the Confederate States, desiring access to the Pacific Ocean, proposed purchasing the provinces of Sonora and Chihuahua from Mexico. After Maximilian II was more settled in his throne, he accepted the the C.S.A's proposal. Though purchase led to the war the U.S. and the C.S. (aided by Britain and France), Mexico played no role in the war itself.

While the sale of the provinces solved Mexico's financial situation for the short term, the Mexican people received no direct benefit. And though the cession of territory had been through a purchase and not a war of conquest, there was a strong outcry against the perceived loss of face. Already a nervous man, Maximilian II's paranoia grew as his popularity decreased. He spent most of his reign sealed off from the public, leaving his country to a series of unstable elected governments headed by a round-robin of prime ministers. His secrecy in the face of unpopularity simply made him more unpopular, which in turn fed his paranoia and isolation. Despite decades of marriage, he and Marie Valerie (Maria Valeria) produced only one son, named Francisco Jose I in honor of the Austrian Emperor. Maximilian II died in 1908, a virtual hermit.

Francisco José I was coronated at a precarious time in Mexico's history. The Austrian Hapsburgs viewed the Mexican Hapsburgs as country cousins, and had very little to do with them. Much of this attitude was dictated by certain political realities. Mexico was a close ally of the Confederate States, whose primary political rival was the United States. The U.S. were allied to the German Empire, with whom Austria had developed close ties. Thus, Mexico and Austria were on opposing sides of the political divide that was shaping Europe and North America.

Sure enough, when the Great War broke out in 1914, Mexico soon joined the Confederate States in declaring war on the United States. Germany and Austria declared war on France, Britain, and the Confederate States. Austria and Mexico were never directly at war with each other, but they did adhere to their respective alliances.

With Mexico on the losing side of the war, republican sentiment gathered momentum. When Francisco José I died of an infection in 1920, republican forces, known as the Popular Revolutionaries, launched an uprising against his son and successor, Maximilian III. The United States provided tepid support for the Popular Revolutionaries, whereas Maximilian's royalist faction received substantial (yet unofficial) support from the Confederate States. Maximilian held his throne, eventually passing it to his son, Francisco José II, who reigned over the country's entry into the Second Great War. While Mexico was again on the losing side, the U.S. was far more concerned with occupying and reintegrating the Confederate States to impose harsh peace terms on Mexico.

Second Kingdom of Poland

Monarch Reign Succession
1 Leopold I
(Prince Leopold of Bavaria)
1917-1930 Supreme Commander of the German forces on the Eastern Front
2 Konrad II
(Prince Konrad of Bavaria)
1930- Son of Leopold I

When the German Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire declared the reconstitution the Kingdom of Poland in 1916, they had largely opposing goals. Austria-Hungary wanted either a Polish kingdom under the umbrella of Austrian rule, or a division of the Poland between Austria and Germany. Germany, on the other hand, wanted the new state to be an absolute puppet, ruled by a German prince and its military, transportation, and economy controlled by Germany. Both Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire had candidates. Austria-Hungary arguably had the best candidates in Archduke Charles Stephen and his son Charles Albert, both of whom had ties to Galicia, which remained culturally Polish after more than a century of Austrian rule. Both were also fluent in Polish.

While Germany had a number candidates, their front runner was Prince Leopold of Bavaria, who commanded Germany's forces on the Eastern Front. The German government had no intention of accepting an Austrian ruler. Even a compromise with an Austrian king reigning over a German puppet was unacceptable.

For the first few months of 1917, Poland was ruled by the German controlled Council of State. Concurrently, Russia withdrew from the war. Given Leopold's position as Supreme Commander, he and Germany could claim to having defeated Russia. Leopold's claim now trumped the claims of the German candidates. Realizing Germany's intractability, Austria-Hungary withdrew its claims, and Leopold became the first king of the second Kingdom of Poland.

Leopold I was be no means beloved by his subjects. While he was able to assert autonomy in modest ways, including the re-creation of the Sejm, and increased emphasis on Polish culture (through a pro-German lens), Leopold was otherwise beholden to the German Empire, and the Polish people knew it. Still, when he died, the Poles did not rebel, as the Germans feared they might.

Leopold was succeeded by his second son, Konrad. (Leopold's elder son, Georg, had renounced his claims and become a Catholic priest.) Konrad and his wife, Princess Bona, had relocated to Warsaw in 1921, not long after their wedding. Both of their children were born in Poland proper, and grew up speaking both German and Polish. In order to further cement his ties to Poland's history, Konrad adopted the reginal name Konrad II (the first Konrad was the High Duke of Poland in the 13th century). Konrad II assumed the throne just as the Depression was taking hold in Poland. While Poland's perennial martial state helped blunt some of the economic impact, Poland was still stricken by unemployment and economic uncertainty. While Konrad II was not particularly anti-Semitic, his government was slow to respond to the pogroms that arose from the economic anxiety of the Polish people. However, Konrad was able to use the pogroms to convince the German government to re-create a Polish army for the limited purpose of defending Poland's borders. With the threat of a vindictive Russian Empire emerging as the 1930s ended, the Polish people grudgingly decided Germany was the lesser evil. Germany, with its own roster of enemies, saw no choice but to trust Poland with its own defense, thereby freeing up German troops to defend the less reliable Ukraine. Konrad portrayed this as proof of greater Polish autonomy.

The course of the Second Great War justified this mutual (if grudging) trust. The Central Powers defeated Russia in the Ukraine. While neither Konrad II nor the Polish military were tested on the battlefield, Konrad's efforts to support Polish nationalism and loosen Germany's grip improved his standing with his subjects.

United Kingdom

Prime Minister

Prime Minister Term of office Political party Monarch
H.H. Asquith 1908-1916 Liberal George V (1910-1936)
David Lloyd George December 1916-June 1917 Liberal
Bonar Law June 1917-March 1920 Conservative
Austen Chamberlain March 1920-May 1923 Conservative
Ramsay MacDonald May 1923-November 1924 Labour
Leo Amery November 1924-June 1929 Conservative
Ramsay MacDonald June, 1929-January 1934 Labour
Winston Churchill January 1934-June 1944 Conservative
Edward VIII (1936-Incumbent, 1945)
Horace Wilson June 1944-

United States of America

President Term Party Vice President
16 Abraham Lincoln Lincoln.jpg 1861-1865 Republican Hannibal Hamlin
17 Horatio Seymour Hseymour.jpg 1865-1869 Democrat George Pendleton
18 George Pendleton GeorgePendleton.jpg 1869-1873 Democratic Party Joel Parker
19 Jeremiah S. Black 1873-1877 Democratic Party Clement Vallandigham
20 Samuel J. Tilden Tilden.gif 1877-1881 Democratic Thomas A. Hendricks
21 James G. Blaine JGBlaine.jpg 1881-1885 Republican Chester A. Arthur
22 Winfield Scott Hancock Hancock.jpg 1885-1886 Democratic James Garfield
(Ascended to the presidency)
23 James Garfield Garfield.jpg 1886-1889 Democratic Vacancy
24 Alfred Thayer Mahan ATMahan.jpg 1889-1897 (?) Democratic Thomas B. Reed
25 Thomas B. Reed Reed.jpg 1897-1902 Democrat Joseph Gurney Cannon
(Ascended to the presidency)
26 Joseph Gurney Cannon 1902-1905 Democratic Vacancy
27 Elihu Root 1905-1913 Democratic Joseph B. Foraker
28 Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt.jpg 1913-1921 Democratic Walter McKenna
29 Upton Sinclair UptonSinclair.jpg 1921-1929 Socialist Hosea Blackford
30 Hosea Blackford Nophoto.jpg 1929-1933 Socialist Hiram Johnson
312 Herbert Hoover Hoover.jpg 1933-1937 Democrat Office vacant
32 Al Smith Smith.jpg 1937-1942 Socialist Charles W. La Follette
(Ascended to the presidency)
33 Charles W. La Follette Nophoto.jpg 1942-1945 Socialist Office vacant
34 Thomas Dewey Thomas e dewey2.jpg 1945-
Incumbent at series' end
Democrat Harry Truman