Throughout its long history, Persia, later known as Iran, has had a variety of governments, most of them monarchical in nature. Since 1979, Iran has been a republic. The fiction of Harry Turtledove has altered the history and government of Persia aka Iran in numerous ways.

Agent of Byzantium

The Persian Empire was the Roman Empire's chief rival. It was ruled by the King of Kings, assisted by the Grand Wazir.

Known Kings of Kings:

Known Grand Wazirs:

"Counting Potsherds"

Under Khsrish I the Conqueror, the Persian Empire completely subdued the Yauna. While Persia remained master of the Western world four centuries later, its royal family was not immune to the temptation of kinslaying.

King of Kings
Khsrish I Xerxes.jpg
Numerous unnamed kings
(Presumably including Khsrish II and Khsrish III)
Marduniya Nophoto.jpg
Khsrish IV Nophoto.jpg
(Incumbent at story's end)

Crosstime Traffic

The Iranian monarchy was overthrown in 1979 by the Islamic Republic, which was controlled by the Ayatollahs. In the 21st century, the international community overthrew the Republic and restored the monarchy. In 2097, the incumbent Shah and Prime Minister ruled from a precarious position.

Other rulers

Darius II is referenced as the incumbent monarch in "The Daimon."

Alexander the Great's fate seems to have been altered in one of the alternates referenced but never visited in Crosstime Traffic, but the details are left vague.

In The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump, an unnamed Shahanshah was deposed c. 1979 by a secularist government, which is still in power at the novel's end in 1993.

In Supervolcano: Eruption, the Grand Ayatollah and President of Iran briefly appear via television. It is unclear whether they survive the sudden war with Israel, and the matter is dropped for the rest of the series.

In Through Darkest Europe, Persia is referenced in numerous plot points. It appears to retain a monarchy in 2018, though no rulers are mentioned. While the Grand Ayatollah in Qom is referenced, it is not clear whether he holds any political position.

Historical rulers in non-ruling roles

Ruhollah Khomeini appears in Colonization as the leader of an insurgency against the Race, until his movement is defeated not with a bang, but with a whimper.

See also