Italy has had many forms of government in its intermittent history as a nation. The most common head of state titles have been King and President, while the head of government has most often used the title of Prime Minister. Nevertheless, there have been occasional exceptions. Harry Turtledove has made even more changes to Italy's governing style in his fiction.

The Gladiator

In the home timeline, Italy's parliamentary republic, established in the 1940s, remained in effect more than 150 years later. In 2097, the incumbent Prime Minister was frequently criticized in the press.

In an alternate where communism won the Cold War in the 20th century, the Italian People's Republic ruled with an iron hand, although not a terribly efficient one. In 2097, the General Secretary of the Communist Party was the de facto ruler of Italy, and anyone who had a problem with his rule did not dare give voice to it.

In the Presence of Mine Enemies

The Kingdom of Italy emerged victorious from the Second World War in the 1940s. Although it was clearly a junior partner in the Axis behind Germany and Japan, Italy maintained a respectable colonial empire in Africa into the 21st century. The head of state was the King, who was regarded as a figurehead, although the presence of a charismatic individual on the throne could influence policy. In the 1920s, Prime Minister Benito Mussolini became known by the informal title of Duce, which was later adopted formally as the title of the head of government. The Duce was understood to be the true power behind the throne.

Known Kings

Umberto III, incumbent in 2010-2011, voiced support for Heinz Buckliger's reforms in Germany.

Known Duci

Through Darkest Europe

The Grand Duchy of Italy was unified from several disparate nation-states which mostly shared a common language and culture. The Grand Dukes strove to bring Italy into the modern era, but were hampered by belligerent backward-thinkers such as the Aquinists.

Grand Duke Reign
Predecessors unnamed ????-1993
Cosimo III c. 1993-2018
Lorenzo III 2018-
Incumbent at novel's end

Other rulers

As most Harry Turtledove timelines involving Italy have a point of divergence between 1900 and 1946, King Victor Emmanuel III is probably the head of state at the start of most stories. However, the only work in which he is actually mentioned is Worldwar, a timeline which leaves his final fate and successor unrevealed.

Benito Mussolini appears directly as Prime Minister (informally Duce) in Worldwar and The War That Came Early. In the former series, his final fate and successor are unrevealed, while the latters series ends with him still in power, although he is likely to be overthrown before long. Mussolini is also referenced as the incumbent head of government in the part of "Hail! Hail!" set in OTL.

Carlo d'Asburgo is referenced in "Eyewear," a science fiction story set mostly in OTL. While Carlo was King of Italy at the time, the reference focuses on his more important office as King of Spain.

Historical rulers in non-ruling roles

Some individuals, who were head of state and/or government of Italy in OTL, play roles in Harry Turtledove timelines where they do not obtain the relevant offices.

Napoleon Bonaparte (OTL President 1802-1805, King 1805-1814) plays a posthumous role in The Two Georges as a soldier but not a political leader.

Benito Mussolini is referenced in Settling Accounts: Return Engagement as having failed to gain high office in the Southern Victory timeline.