India has a millennia-long recorded history, with numerous forms of head of state and government. Since 1950, the head of state has been the President, and since 1947 the Head of Government has been the Prime Minister. Governments prior to 1947 were primarily monarchical, with the Monarch of the United Kingdom doubling as Emperor or Empress of India from 1877 until 1947.

The following individuals ruled India during or after the point of divergence of one of Harry Turtledove's alternate history timelines. Most Turtledove PODs occur when India is a part of the British Empire.

Many stories contain references to rulers who died before the POD. Stories set in the history of OTL may reference the incumbent ruler. These do not belong here.

Southern Victory

The British Monarch acquired the title Emperor or Empress of India in 1877.[1]

Monarch Reign
1 Victoria Queenvictoria 1877-1901
2 Edward VII EdwardVII 1901-1910
3 George V GeorgeV 1910-1936
4 Edward VIII EdwardVIII 1936-
Incumbent at series' end, 1945

The Two Georges

Since 1877[2], the British Monarch also holds the title Emperor or Empress of India.

Monarch Reign
1 Victoria Queenvictoria 1877-1901
2 Edward VII* EdwardVII 1901-1910
3 George V* GeorgeV 1910-1936
4 Edward VIII EdwardVIII 1936-1972(?)
5(?) Edward IX Nophoto 1972-1985
(dates estimated)
6(?) Charles III Nophoto 1985(?)-
Incumbent at novel's end, 1995

(*) Not referenced in novel.

Other rulers

The following characters rule India in other Harry Turtledove works.

Edward VIII of Britain is Emperor of India when The War That Came Early begins, only to abdicate as in OTL.

George VI of Britain plays background roles in Worldwar, The War That Came Early, and Joe Steele. In Worldwar, he is Emperor of India until 1944, when the Peace of Cairo cedes India to the Race Colonies on Tosev 3. In The War That Came Early, he remains Emperor at the conclusion of the series, but his position is quite tenuous. In Joe Steele, the British Empire's control of India probably ended as in OTL, but the novel does not address this.

In Through Darkest Europe, India is divided into multiple nation-states. In the mid 20th century, the warlord Faruq al-Ghaznavi seized power over most or all of India, and ruled brutally until his overthrow in a WWII analog. What title he used is unclear.

In Curious Notions, set in 2096, India was never decolonised. As Great Britain is subject to the German Empire, it is unclear whether the Kaiser of Germany or the King of England (both of whom are referenced in broad strokes) is the Emperor of India.

Historical rulers in non-ruling roles

Some historical figures became head of state and/or government of India in OTL, but do not in certain Harry Turtledove stories.

Victoria of Britain is referenced in The Guns of the South and the Atlantis series in her OTL role as Monarch of the United Kingdom. The former work ends before 1877, while it is not known if the title Empress of India exists in the latter series.

Edward VII of Britain is referenced in The Guns of the South and "The Scarlet Band" (Atlantis) as the incumbent Prince of Wales. Both timelines end before he can succeed to Victoria's thrones.

Jawaharlal Nehru appears in "The Last Article," agitating against German rule of India. He is captured and executed by the Nazis in 1947.


  1. Not specifically stated, but there is no reason to think this particular fact was altered.
  2. Speculative, as the title was created that year in OTL.
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