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Austria has had several forms of government throughout its history. It was a margraviate from 976 to 1156, a duchy from 1156 to 1457, and an archduchy from 1457 to 1804. Throughout this period, Austria was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire. During the archduchy period, most of the Holy Roman Emperors also held the title of Archduke of Austria. In 1804, the Emperor Francis II proclaimed Austria an empire itself, and two years later, dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. The ruler of Austria was the Emperor of Austria until 1918. In 1867, the Empire of Austria was united with the Kingdom of Hungary, and this union was commonly known as Austria-Hungary. That union dissolved in 1918 at the close of World War I, and Austria became a republic.

The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919. The head of state was the president, which was largely a figurehead office. Most power rested with the chancellor. After nearly two decades of instability, Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938 and remained part of Germany until the end of World War II in 1945. The Allied occupiers established a new republican government in that year, but maintaining a strong hold over the government until 1955, when Austria officially regained its independence. Unlike Germany, Austria was not subject to division between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, and remained a single state.

Harry Turtledove has had numerous Austrian heads of state and government play background roles in his alternate history fiction.

Southern Victory

Under the rule of the Hapsburg dynasty, Austria-Hungary emerged victorious, if not particularly strong, from the Great War and the Second Great War in the 20th century.


Monarch Reign
3 Franz Josef I FranzJosef 1848-1916
4 Karl I CharlesofAustria 1916-
Incumbent at series' end, 1945

Other rulers

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor is the incumbent monarch in "Eyewear".

Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor is the incumbent monarch in "The More it Changes."

Former President and Chancellor Arthur Seyss-Inquart is alive for the PODs of both The Man With the Iron Heart and "The Eighth-Grade History Class Visits the Hebrew Home for the Aging." While the former novel grants him a stay of execution for at least two years, the POD of the latter probably did not affect his fate.

An unnamed Hapsburg Emperor of Austria rules in 1995 in The Two Georges.

An unnamed Austro-Hungarian Emperor rules in 2096 in Curious Notions.

Historical rulers in non-ruling roles

Kurt Schussnigg appears in the Southern Victory volume American Empire: The Victorious Opposition as a diplomat. There is no indication that he was ever Chancellor in that timeline.

See also

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