This page lists fictional heads of state and/or government who are the referenced incumbent but unnamed office-holders, in the works of Harry Turtledove (and, rarely, Laura Frankos), OR are posthumously referenced, but their role is relevant to understanding the plot or background of a given work. Usually the reference is relegated to a few sentences.
When Emperor Constans II reconquered Italia from the Lombards in the mid 7th century, the erstwhile Pope was doctrinally unacceptable to the Emperor. He fled to the Frankish lands, and began the line of antipopes followed by the Franco-Saxons and the Anglelanders. Possibly an analog of Pope Martin I.
With the troublesome Pope out of the way, Constans installed a successor of his own choosing.
King of Kings of the Persian Empire
Referenced in broad strokes in "Archetypes" (set in 1316) and "Superwine" (set in 1320). As ruler of the Roman Empire's chief rival Persia, this monarch presides over many schemes which seek to undermine Roman power along the border. These schemes are carried out with the help of the spy Mirrane.
Grand Wazir of the Persian Empire
President of Egypt
The President of Egypt issues a condemnation of the terrorist dirty bombing of Tel Aviv, but is unable to prevent large numbers of his people from being been filmed rejoicing in the streets at the news.
First Grand Ayatollah of Iran
Iran launched three missiles at Israel in retaliation for the removal of the Dome of the Rock from the Temple Mount, but the missiles simply disappeared. At the same time, the incumbent Grand Ayatollah fell over dead while giving a sermon to thousands in a mosque in Qom.
Second Grand Ayatollah of Iran
The new Grand Ayatollah pushed the government of Israel to allow a meeting between the newly-discovered Mahdi, Muhammad al-Muntazar, and the recently discovered Messiah, Chaim Avigad. He even allowed the government of Israel to set the terms. The Israeli government accepted the offer, sending a plane to Tehran for the Madhi and his escorts, and flying them back to Israel.
President of Iran
Iran launched three missiles at Israel in retaliation for the removal of the Dome of the Rock from the Temple Mount, but the missiles simply disappeared. At the same time, the President of Iran was found dead in his office with the words Mene, mene, tekel upharsin scrawled on the wall in ancient Aramaic scrip.
President of Syria
Like his real-world analog Bashar Assad, the President of Syria is a brutal tyrant, a member of the Alawite sect of Islam, and the successor of his equally brutal but much more capable father. He is killed by an Israeli bombing raid over Damascus for his alleged complicity in the dirty bombing of Tel Aviv, exacerbating Syria's already-in-progress civil war.
President of the United States
An unnamed President is seen on CNN condemning the dirty bomb attack on Tel Aviv and going on how the U.S. needed to win every time while the terrorists need to only win once. He is described as not the best public speaker, but there is no indication he is Donald Trump, the U.S. President at the time of publication.
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
In 1852, Jeremiah Stafford tells Leland Newton that the Grand Turk (common slang for the Ottoman Sultan) has been murdering Armenians "for sport" without suffering consequences. This behavior could hardly be any further from the nature of Abdul Majid I, who reigned from 1839-1861 in OTL. Abdul Majid was one of the most enlightened monarchs in the Empire's history, famously passing laws ensuring tolerance for non-Muslims, civil rights, and the beginning of gradual emancipation of slaves. Armenians in Turkey never suffered any particular persecution until after his reign.
Czar of Russia
Stafford follows his point about the Ottoman Sultan (see above) by suggesting that the Russian Czar is doing the same thing to Jews. As with the former example, this suggests a ruler other than OTL's Nicholas I, who reigned from 1825-1855. While quite autocratic and restrictive of freedom of the press, Nicholas' reign saw minimal anti-Semitic violence. The archetypical "pogrom" did not take its quintessential form until the 1880s, during the reign of his grandson Alexander III.
President of Ukraine
Referenced in passing when Malcolm Washington and Nicole Yoshida reflect that Pacifica's situation, being nearly surrounded by the United States, is much like Ukraine's position relative to Russia.
King and Prime Minister of the Confederated Provinces
The Confederated Provinces is an analog of the United States, but is a constitutional monarchy, rather than a republic, with a king and a prime minister. Both are mentioned in passing by their titles only. The king is described as a figurehead, and the prime minister is described as having the real power, although that is a recent development.
Emperor of Aztecia
Shahanshah of Persia
The monarch of Persia was overthrown in recent memory and replaced by a secularist republic. A large number of his supporters live in exile in Angels City. The character is a loose analog of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Leader of Alemania
Alemania is an analog of Germany. A figure similar to Adolf Hitler orchestrated a version of the Holocaust during the Second Sorcerous War. The Leader's apparent lack of interest in the afterlife led many to believe he had apsychia, but by 1993 this remains unproven. "Leader of Alemania" is a literal translation of "Führer of Germany".
Emperor of Byzantium
Mentioned in passing as one of the two most powerful monarchs in the world. Given the apparent time frame, this Emperor may be an analog of Andronikos II Palaiologos (reigned 1282-1328).
Great Khan of China
Shah and Prime Minister of Iran
These two figures are mentioned in passing. The Prime Minister survived an assassination attempt in the 2090s.
Prime Minister of Italy
While visiting the home timeline, Gianfranco Mazzilli is amazed by how openly critical people are of the Prime Minister of Italy, noting that in his own world, people would go to prison camps for even thinking such things about a government official.
King of Spain
Emperor of Austria-Hungary
Emperor of Brazil
Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1889.
Emperor of China
Mentioned as being the focal point of a plot to challenge the German Empire by setting up a Chinese one to rival it.
King of England
Kaiser of the German Empire
In the late 21st century, this unnamed Kaiser is the de facto ruler of most of the world.
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
King of Portugal
Censors of the FCA in 1804
Referenced in passing by in "Though the Heavens Fall." In office for the 1800-1805 term, these two men share the position of Censor of the Federated Commonwealths of America. They are from opposite parties, and each one vetoes every proposition put forth by the other, resulting in an administration sure to become legendary for its inefficiency. Harry Stowe hopes that the election of 1804 will result in better leadership. He intends to vote for the Adams-Westerbrook straight ticket, rather than a split ticket. Though the story continues into 1805, the outcome of this election is never revealed.
Monarch of England in 1805
Mentioned in passing by Alfred Douglas in "Though the Heavens Fall". Douglas describes the monarch of England as a "tyrant". The assessment is part of a pro-American propaganda lecture, and so should considered a biased source.
Prime Minister of California
Mentioned in passing as man with a fondness for casual fashion, which is in keeping with the customs of his country.
King of Morgaf
Mentioned in passing, this king is of the Strongbrow species.
Prince of Lissonland
Mentioned in passing, this king is of the Highhead species.
Tharpian King of Kings
Deceased Queen of Albion
An analog of Queen Victoria is referenced for her comment that "We are not amused."
Atabeg of the Hassockian Empire
The uncle of Prince Halim Eddin rules over a powerful Empire that lost much territory in the Nekemte Wars. He is enraged at the possibility of his nephew taking the crown of former colony Shqiperi, and demands proof that Halim has not left the homeland. Halim's double Otto of Schlepsig believes the Atabeg to be a fool. The character is an analog of Mehmed V and/or Mehmed VI, the last two Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. After the War of the Kingdoms, the Atabeg (or his immediate successor, depending on how closely the OTL metaphor is kept) is overthrown, and succeeded by the new dynasty begun by Atabeg Kemal.
King-Emperor of the Dual Monarchy
The Emperor of the Eastmarch and King of Yagmaria, an analog of Franz Joseph I of Austria, is referenced in broad strokes, up until he enters his empire in the War of the Kingdoms, following the murder of his heir. He appears to have died before the conflict's end.
King of Albion
King of Schlepsig
King of the Eastmarch
When the Dual Monarchy collapses, a king from the royal dynasty manages to continue ruling the Eastmarch. This king is broadly based on, Charles I of Austria, but much more successful than Charles, who could not even retain power in Austria after the Armistice.
King of Yagmaria
When the Dual Monarchy collapses, Yagmaria chooses a new king. He was an admiral in the late regime, and continues to style himself as such, despite Yagmaria's lack of a coastline. Based on Hungary's Admiral Miklos Horthy.
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Italian People's Republic
Mentioned several times throughout the novel, he rules the country where most of the novel takes place.
Russia's late Czar
In 1381, toward the end of the decades-long outbreak of the Great Black Deaths which devastated northern Europe, the Pope and the King of France ordered the death on the wheel of a heretical cult leader named Henri. The day after Henri's death, these two heads of state, while relishing in their triumph, were killed in a freak accident involving the structural collapse of a church in which they were praying. Other important higher-ups were killed in the same disaster.
King of Bulgaria
In 2010, the King of Bulgaria receives the Poglavnik of Croatia on an official state visit, celebrating a victory over Serb terrorism. Video footage of the two men embracing is shown on the Seven O'clock News.
In 2010, the incumbent Poglavnik of Croatia travels to Sofia to meet with the King of Bulgaria after the discovery of hidden Jews in Serbia. A few months later, the Poglavnik declares a day of mourning when Germany's Führer Kurt Haldweim dies, stating that Haldweim's memory would live in the hearts of men forever. In 2011, the Poglavnik meets with Haldweim's successor Heinz Buckliger who is visiting Croatia.
Leader of Denmark
In 2010, the leader of Denmark joins other world leaders in praising Heinz Buckliger's decision to ease the debt owed to Germany by the United States. In 2011, the Dane is one of several leaders to condemn the SS Putsch.
Leader of Finland
The leader of Finland is mentioned in the same paragraphs as the above Dane, making the exact same statements.
Premier of France
Duce of the Italian Empire
Although King Umberto is the nominal ruler, the Duce wields the actual power in Italy. Umberto expresses his condolences upon the death of Kurt Haldweim, calling him a man of power and of peace. He is initially supportive of Heinz Buckliger.
Emperor of Japan
Leader of Norway
Emperor of Manchukuo
The Emperor of Manchukuo expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Haldweim, along with the Japanese Emperor.
The Caudillo of Spain describes Kurt Haldweim as a man of world-historical proportions.
Leader of Sweden
Khan of the Avars
King of the Franks
King of the neighboring country
Prime Minister of Kurdistan
In 2219, the Prime Minister declares that Kurdistan has determined that the antibiotic-resistant plague that is harming his nation comes from Iran, and that the Shah is behind it.
Shah of Iran
The Shah denies the Prime Minister's allegations, but laboratory evidence indicates that he is a "lying Shiite dog."
Czar of Siberia
This monarch rules the kingdom which split off from the Soviet Union sometime in the 21st or 22nd century, and is referenced for several trivial plot points.
"None So Blind"
Emperor of Mussalmi
Penultimate King of Helmand
Last King of Helmand
The infant king was a sickly boy who only lived a few years. His stepmother Sabium succeeded him to become Helmand's first female head of state, and the only one it ever needed.
Last King of Mawsil
The last king of Mawsil submitted himself and his kingdom to Sabium, the Queen-Goddess of Helmand, sometime after 1186 but long before 2686. This event was commemorated each year in a pageant held in the town square. Actors played the King and Sabium each year, until the performance in 2688 FSY, when Sabium stepped in and played herself.
Dictator of Astilia
Chieftain of a rival tribe
A rival chieftain in Eestexas was threatening to declare war against Chief Ralf's people, until Shaman Madyu discovered the chieftain's true name, and threatened to do dreadful things to the man’s ghost in the afterlife, unless he called off his warriors.
Galactic Emperor and Empress
Mentioned in passing, with the implication that they are absolute monarchs of the Galactic Empire. There is the further implication from the text that they are not as popular as they might like to be, but that it is not safe to express disapproval of their government. There is no clue as to what species they are.
Premier of Quebec
In The Center Cannot Hold, the Premier of the Republic of Quebec marches at the funeral of former US President Theodore Roosevelt in 1924. (Two Central American heads of state accompany the Premier, with neither country specified.) In the same year, the Premier pledges Quebecois aide to quell the Canadian uprising. In 1925, newsreel footage presented in Rosenfeld shows the Premier conducting a ceremony on a bridge with President Upton Sinclair.
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister is a man, but is not otherwise described. He delivers a speech promising an eye for an eye after Iran apparently launches a nuclear attack on Tel Aviv. This results in a nuclear counter-strike on Tehran and Qom.
Aside from the fact that the President is a man and a Democrat in Eruption, he is not described. As the series spans more than eight years, this President is probably out of office before the series ends.
Around 1718, a Cardinal was elected Pope, and died of joy immediately when told of this accomplishment. He was nevertheless considered to have been a true Pope, because the Holy Spirit pointed to him. Three centuries later, Giacomo Badoglio told this Pope's story to Khalid al-Zarzisi to explain why Pope Marcellus IX was not an excitable man - excitable men don't last long in the papal seat.
Emperor of Germany
Though he purports to rule over all the German states, this monarch has no real power, and his government is too impoverished to send him to the funeral of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Italy in Rome. A couple of "lesser" German monarchs are able to afford the journey, but none are specified.
King of Aragon and Queen of Castile
The monarchs of the two most important Spanish states arrive at the funeral of Cosimo III in the same airplane, causing much public speculation.
Sultan and Wazir of the Maghrib
One of the world's more enlightened and progressive nations is governed by a monarchical head of state and a parliamentary head of government. The Sultan is implied to be a figurehead, with all true power resting with the Wazir.
Sultan and Wazir of the Seljuk Empire
The same power arrangement as in the Maghrib applies here as well. The Wazir attends the funeral of Cosimo III.
Emperor of Austria
Tsar of Russia
The reigning Tsar of Russia is referenced throughout the novel, but never named.
Prime Minister of Britain
An unnamed female Prime Minister governs Britain in 1995, and makes a statement after the painting The Two Georges is stolen. This wiki previously endorsed the popular consensus identifying her as Margaret Thatcher, but has since removed it, as there is no evidence either way.
Producer and Director of Burbank
Maleinos II's Predecessors as Avtokrator of Videssos
In Bridge of the Separator, it is mentioned a number of times by various characters that Rhavas' grandmother was Maleinos II's grandfather's sister and that the grandfather was an usurper the way Stylianos was. Neither the grandfather nor the Avtokrator he overthrew or his son who presumably was Maleinos II's immediate predecessor were named.
King of Agder
President of Peru
One of the leaders of the few remaining free countries at the time of the story, El Presidente presides over a rump state located around the Andes Mountains. United States President Harris Moffatt III spoke to El Presidente by phone on occasion.
Ruler of the Krolp
Harris Moffatt III thinks briefly about this ruler, who has a position with no analog in Earth history. "He wasn’t exactly a king or a president or an ayatollah." This ruler receives numerous petitions from humans as well as his own kind, and occasionally responds to some of them.
The Emperor who ruled the Race in the early 1920s, and who formally ordered Fleetlord Atvar to conquer Tosev 3, is mentioned in Homeward Bound, but not by name. It is said that he was more interested in form and ceremony than in the substance of policy, a marked difference from the incumbent at the time of the novel, the 37th Emperor Risson. This emperor is referred to as "His Majesty's predecessor" and is implied, though not explicitly stated, to have been Risson's immediate predecessor. The Conquest Fleet celebrated this emperor's hatching day as a holiday during their war against the Big Five. Due to the difference in the amounts of time it took Earth and Home to complete orbits of their respective suns, this holiday would occur twice in one Tosevite year, to the confusion of many human observers such as Liu Han and Nieh Ho-Ting. The same Emperor gave the order for Atvar's recall to Home at the beginning of Homeward Bound.
- See e.g. Agent of Byzantium, 2018 edition, pgs. 138-139.
- Ibid., p. 234.
- Alpha and Omega, p. 62, hc.
- Ibid., pgs. 222-223.
- Ibid., pg. 393, ebook.
- Ibid. pg. 399.
- Ibid., pgs. 222-223.
- Alpha and Omega, pgs. 81-82.
- Ibid, p. 465.
- Ibid., pg. 64.
- Liberating Atlantis, p. 213.
- And the Last Trump Shall Sound, pg. 57.
- The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump, loc. 2446, ebook.
- Ibid., loc. 5859.
- Ibid., loc. 591.
- E.g., 3xT, p. 404, HC.
- The Disunited States of America, pg. 278.
- The Gladiator, pg. 279, HC.
- In High Places, pg. 256, HC.
- Curious Notions, pg. 43, MMP.
- Ibid., pg. 185.
- Ibid., pg. 43.
- Ibid. pg. 43.
- The Disunited States of America, pg. 41.
- Every Inch a King, TPB, pg. 37.
- Ibid., p. 93.
- In High Places, pg. 15.
- In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 73.
- Ibid., pgs. 51-53.
- Ibid., pgs. 51-52.
- Ibid. pg. 73.
- Ibid., p. 385.
- Ibid., p. 225.
- Ibid., p. 422.
- Ibid., pg. 422.
- Ibid., pg. 107.
- Ibid., pg. 51.
- Ibid., pg. 225.
- Ibid., pg. 72.
- Ibid., p. 422
- Ibid., p. 72.
- Ibid., pg. 73, HC.
- Ibid., p. 422
- Departures, p. 74.
- Ibid., pgs. 69, 82.
- E.g., 3xT, p. 7, HC.
- Ibid., p. 162.
- Federations. 2009: Prime Books. p 95.
- The Center Cannot Hold pg. 37, HC.
- Ibid., pg. 48.
- Ibid., pg. 82.
- Eruption, pg. 325-326.
- Ibid., e.g. pg. 54.
- Through Darkest Europe, p. 274.
- The Two Georges, p. 320, HC.
- The Valley-Westside War, p. 19.
- The Tale of Krispos, p. 508.
- Homeward Bound p. 231 et al
- Upsetting the Balance pp 482, 488.