This page lists fictional heads of state and/or government who are the referenced incumbent but unnamed office-holders, in the works of Harry Turtledove (and, rarely, Laura Frankos), OR are posthumously referenced, but their role is relevant to understanding the plot or background of a given work. Usually the reference is relegated to a few sentences.  

Agent of Byzantium[]

Deposed Pope[]

When Emperor Constans II reconquered Italia from the Lombards in the mid 7th century, the erstwhile Pope was doctrinally unacceptable to the Emperor. He fled to the Frankish lands, and began the line of antipopes followed by the Franco-Saxons and the Anglelanders. Possibly an analog of Pope Martin I.[1]

Installed Pope[]

With the troublesome Pope out of the way, Constans installed a successor of his own choosing.[2]

King of Kings of the Persian Empire[]

Referenced in broad strokes in "Archetypes" (set in 1316) and "Superwine" (set in 1320). As ruler of the Roman Empire's chief rival Persia, this monarch presides over many schemes which seek to undermine Roman power along the border. These schemes are carried out with the help of the spy Mirrane.

Grand Wazir of the Persian Empire[]

Referenced in "Images," set in 1317. This prime minister gives Mirrane her marching orders.[3]

Alpha and Omega[]

President of Egypt[]

The President of Egypt issues a condemnation of the terrorist dirty bombing of Tel Aviv, but is unable to prevent large numbers of his people from being been filmed rejoicing in the streets at the news.[4]

First Grand Ayatollah of Iran[]

Iran launched three missiles at Israel in retaliation for the removal of the Dome of the Rock from the Temple Mount, but the missiles simply disappeared. At the same time, the incumbent Grand Ayatollah fell over dead while giving a sermon to thousands in a mosque in Qom.[5]

Second Grand Ayatollah of Iran[]

The new Grand Ayatollah pushed the government of Israel to allow a meeting between the newly-discovered Mahdi, Muhammad al-Muntazar, and the recently discovered Messiah, Chaim Avigad. He even allowed the government of Israel to set the terms.[6] The Israeli government accepted the offer, sending a plane to Tehran for the Madhi and his escorts, and flying them back to Israel.[7]

President of Iran[]

Iran launched three missiles at Israel in retaliation for the removal of the Dome of the Rock from the Temple Mount, but the missiles simply disappeared. At the same time, the President of Iran was found dead in his office with the words Mene, mene, tekel upharsin scrawled on the wall in ancient Aramaic scrip.[8]

President of Syria[]

Like his real-world analog Bashar Assad, the President of Syria is a brutal tyrant, a member of the Alawite sect of Islam, and the successor of his equally brutal but much more capable father. He is killed by an Israeli bombing raid over Damascus for his alleged complicity in the dirty bombing of Tel Aviv,[9] exacerbating Syria's already-in-progress civil war.[10]

President of the United States[]

An unnamed President is seen on CNN condemning the dirty bomb attack on Tel Aviv and going on how the U.S. needed to win every time while the terrorists need to only win once. He is described as not the best public speaker, but there is no indication he is Donald Trump, the U.S. President at the time of publication.[11]


Sultan of the Ottoman Empire[]

In 1852, Jeremiah Stafford tells Leland Newton that the Grand Turk (common slang for the Ottoman Sultan) has been murdering Armenians "for sport" without suffering consequences.[12] This behavior could hardly be any further from the nature of Abdul Majid I, who reigned from 1839-1861 in OTL. Abdul Majid was one of the most enlightened monarchs in the Empire's history, famously passing laws ensuring tolerance for non-Muslims, civil rights, and the beginning of gradual emancipation of slaves. Armenians in Turkey never suffered any particular persecution until after his reign.

Czar of Russia[]

Stafford follows his point about the Ottoman Sultan (see above) by suggesting that the Russian Czar is doing the same thing to Jews.[13] As with the former example, this suggests a ruler other than OTL's Nicholas I, who reigned from 1825-1855. While quite autocratic and restrictive of freedom of the press, Nicholas' reign saw minimal anti-Semitic violence. The archetypical "pogrom" did not take its quintessential form until the 1880s, during the reign of his grandson Alexander III.

"The Breaking of Nations"[]

President of Ukraine[]

Referenced in passing when Malcolm Washington and Nicole Yoshida reflect that Pacifica's situation, being nearly surrounded by the United States, is much like Ukraine's position relative to Russia.[14]

The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump[]

King and Prime Minister of the Confederated Provinces[]

The Confederated Provinces is an analog of the United States, but is a constitutional monarchy, rather than a republic, with a king and a prime minister. Both are mentioned in passing by their titles only. The king is described as a figurehead, and the prime minister is described as having the real power, although that is a recent development.[15]

Emperor of Aztecia[]

The Empire of Aztecia is an analog of Mexico, though Aztec culture remains a more dominant influence. Towards the end of the novel, the reigning emperor has his entire cabinet put to death.[16]

Shahanshah of Persia[]

The monarch of Persia was overthrown in recent memory and replaced by a secularist republic. A large number of his supporters live in exile in Angels City.[17] The character is a loose analog of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Leader of Alemania[]

Alemania is an analog of Germany. A figure similar to Adolf Hitler orchestrated a version of the Holocaust during the Second Sorcerous War. The Leader's apparent lack of interest in the afterlife led many to believe he had apsychia, but by 1993 this remains unproven. "Leader of Alemania" is a literal translation of "Führer of Germany".

"The Castle of the Sparrowhawk"[]

Emperor of Byzantium[]

Mentioned in passing as one of the two most powerful monarchs in the world. Given the apparent time frame, this Emperor may be an analog of Andronikos II Palaiologos (reigned 1282-1328).[18]

Great Khan of China[]

The other most powerful monarch in the world, apparently an analog of Kublai Khan.[19]

Crosstime Traffic home timeline[]

Shah and Prime Minister of Iran[]

These two figures are mentioned in passing. The Prime Minister survived an assassination attempt in the 2090s.[20]

Prime Minister of Italy[]

While visiting the home timeline, Gianfranco Mazzilli is amazed by how openly critical people are of the Prime Minister of Italy, noting that in his own world, people would go to prison camps for even thinking such things about a government official.[21]

King of Spain[]

When Jacques moves to the Spain of the home timeline, he's initially astonished that the reigning King of Spain is a mere figurehead.[22]

Curious Notions[]

Emperor of Austria-Hungary[]

Mentioned in passing; presumably in power as a consequence of his country's alliance with Germany.[23]

Emperor of Brazil[]

Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1889.[24]

Emperor of China[]

Mentioned as being the focal point of a plot to challenge the German Empire by setting up a Chinese one to rival it.[25]

King of England[]

Mentioned in passing, it's unclear whether he rules Great Britain or literally just England.[26]

Kaiser of the German Empire[]

In the late 21st century, this unnamed Kaiser is the de facto ruler of most of the world.

Sultan of the Ottoman Empire[]

Mentioned in passing; presumably still in power as a consequence of his country's alliance with Germany.[27]

King of Portugal[]

Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1910, four years before the break-point.[28]

A Different Flesh[]

Censors of the FCA in 1804[]

Referenced in passing by in "Though the Heavens Fall." In office for the 1800-1805 term, these two men share the position of Censor of the Federated Commonwealths of America. They are from opposite parties, and each one vetoes every proposition put forth by the other, resulting in an administration sure to become legendary for its inefficiency. Harry Stowe hopes that the election of 1804 will result in better leadership. He intends to vote for the Adams-Westerbrook straight ticket, rather than a split ticket. Though the story continues into 1805, the outcome of this election is never revealed.

Monarch of England in 1805[]

Mentioned in passing by Alfred Douglas in "Though the Heavens Fall". Douglas describes the monarch of England as a "tyrant". The assessment is part of a pro-American propaganda lecture, and so should considered a biased source.

The Disunited States of America[]

Prime Minister of California[]

Mentioned in passing as man with a fondness for casual fashion, which is in keeping with the customs of his country.[29]

"Down in the Bottomlands"[]

King of Morgaf[]

Mentioned in passing, this king is of the Strongbrow species.

Prince of Lissonland[]

Mentioned in passing, this king is of the Highhead species.

Every Inch a King[]

Tharpian King of Kings[]

In the distant past, the prophet Eliphalet faced off against this monarch.[30] Tharpia is an analog of Persia, but the precise analogy here is obscure.

Deceased Queen of Albion[]

An analog of Queen Victoria is referenced for her comment that "We are not amused."

Atabeg of the Hassockian Empire[]

The uncle of Prince Halim Eddin rules over a powerful Empire that lost much territory in the Nekemte Wars. He is enraged at the possibility of his nephew taking the crown of former colony Shqiperi, and demands proof that Halim has not left the homeland. Halim's double Otto of Schlepsig believes the Atabeg to be a fool. The character is an analog of Mehmed V and/or Mehmed VI, the last two Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. After the War of the Kingdoms, the Atabeg (or his immediate successor, depending on how closely the OTL metaphor is kept) is overthrown, and succeeded by the new dynasty begun by Atabeg Kemal.

King-Emperor of the Dual Monarchy[]

The Emperor of the Eastmarch and King of Yagmaria, an analog of Franz Joseph I of Austria, is referenced in broad strokes, up until he enters his empire in the War of the Kingdoms, following the murder of his heir. He appears to have died before the conflict's end.

King of Albion[]

An analog of George V of Britain is referenced in passing. He has Schlepsigian ancestry yet ultimately declares war on that country, just as with George and Germany.

King of Schlepsig[]

An analog of Wilhelm II, German Emperor is referenced in broad strokes. Käthe, a circus performer, shot a lit cigar from his mouth with a crossbow. He abdicates after the War of the Kingdoms.

King of the Eastmarch[]

When the Dual Monarchy collapses, a king from the royal dynasty manages to continue ruling the Eastmarch. This king is broadly based on, Charles I of Austria, but much more successful than Charles, who could not even retain power in Austria after the Armistice.

King of Yagmaria[]

When the Dual Monarchy collapses, Yagmaria chooses a new king. He was an admiral in the late regime, and continues to style himself as such, despite Yagmaria's lack of a coastline. Based on Hungary's Admiral Miklos Horthy.

The Gladiator[]

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Italian People's Republic[]

Mentioned several times throughout the novel, he rules the country where most of the novel takes place.

The House of Daniel[]

Russia's late Czar[]

An analog of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia was killed c. 1918 in a revolution which may have been vampirically inspired.[31]

In High Places[]

Pope and the King of France[]

In 1381, toward the end of the decades-long outbreak of the Great Black Deaths which devastated northern Europe, the Pope and the King of France ordered the death on the wheel of a heretical cult leader named Henri. The day after Henri's death, these two heads of state, while relishing in their triumph, were killed in a freak accident involving the structural collapse of a church in which they were praying. Other important higher-ups were killed in the same disaster.[32]

In the Presence of Mine Enemies[]

Perón of Argentina[]

In 2010, the Perón describes the recently-deceased Führer, Kurt Haldweim, as a model for all rulers aspiring to greatness.[33]

King of Bulgaria[]

In 2010, the King of Bulgaria receives the Poglavnik of Croatia on an official state visit, celebrating a victory over Serb terrorism. Video footage of the two men embracing is shown on the Seven O'clock News.[34]

Poglavnik of Croatia[]

With the Axis triumphant, Croatia's Poglavnik remains a nominally independent ruler, although the Greater German Reich still wielded a great deal of influence over the policies of Croatia.

In 2010, the incumbent Poglavnik of Croatia travels to Sofia to meet with the King of Bulgaria after the discovery of hidden Jews in Serbia.[35] A few months later, the Poglavnik declares a day of mourning when Germany's Führer Kurt Haldweim dies, stating that Haldweim's memory would live in the hearts of men forever.[36] In 2011, the Poglavnik meets with Haldweim's successor Heinz Buckliger who is visiting Croatia.[37]

Leader of Denmark[]

In 2010, the leader of Denmark joins other world leaders in praising Heinz Buckliger's decision to ease the debt owed to Germany by the United States.[38] In 2011, the Dane is one of several leaders to condemn the SS Putsch.[39]

Leader of Finland[]

The leader of Finland is mentioned in the same paragraphs as the above Dane, making the exact same statements.

Premier of France[]

Joins with other critics of the 2011 Putsch "in principle".[40]

Duce of the Italian Empire[]

Although King Umberto is the nominal ruler, the Duce wields the actual power in Italy.[41] Umberto expresses his condolences upon the death of Kurt Haldweim, calling him a man of power and of peace.[42] He is initially supportive of Heinz Buckliger.[43]

Emperor of Japan[]

The Emperor of Japan expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Kurt Haldweim.[44]

See also[]

Leader of Norway[]

In 2011, the leader of Norway joins several colleagues in condemning the 2011 Putsch.[45]

Emperor of Manchukuo[]

The Emperor of Manchukuo expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Haldweim, along with the Japanese Emperor.[46]

Caudillo of Spain[]

The Caudillo of Spain describes Kurt Haldweim as a man of world-historical proportions.[47]

Leader of Sweden[]

In 2011, the leader of Sweden joins several colleagues in condemning the 2011 Putsch.[48]

"Islands in the Sea"[]

Khan of the Avars[]

Mentioned by Telerikh, who sardonically says that he would be pleased to be Khan of the Avars as well as of the Bulgars.[49]

King of the Franks[]

Mentioned as ruling one of the more powerful independent Christian kingdoms remaining in Europe.[50]

"Leg Irons, the Bitch and the Wardrobe"[]

King of the neighboring country[]

This monarch rules the unnamed country which borders Leffing. His son Prince Harrold played him in The King and Me, which the real king was not happy with.

"Manuscript Tradition"[]

Prime Minister of Kurdistan[]

In 2219, the Prime Minister declares that Kurdistan has determined that the antibiotic-resistant plague that is harming his nation comes from Iran, and that the Shah is behind it.

Shah of Iran[]

The Shah denies the Prime Minister's allegations, but laboratory evidence indicates that he is a "lying Shiite dog."

"Les Mortes d'Arthur"[]

Czar of Siberia[]

This monarch rules the kingdom which split off from the Soviet Union sometime in the 21st or 22nd century, and is referenced for several trivial plot points.

"None So Blind"[]

Emperor of Mussalmi[]

This monarch sponsored Baron Toivo's zoological expedition to the tropical continent, and had at least two predecessors.


Penultimate King of Helmand[]

In 1171 FSY, the King of Helmand died, and was succeeded by his infant son. His principal wife Sabium was her stepson's regent.[51]

Last King of Helmand[]

The infant king was a sickly boy who only lived a few years. His stepmother Sabium succeeded him to become Helmand's first female head of state,[52] and the only one it ever needed.

Last King of Mawsil[]

The last king of Mawsil submitted himself and his kingdom to Sabium, the Queen-Goddess of Helmand, sometime after 1186 but long before 2686. This event was commemorated each year in a pageant held in the town square. Actors played the King and Sabium each year, until the performance in 2688 FSY, when Sabium stepped in and played herself.[53]

"Running of the Bulls"[]

Dictator of Astilia[]

Some time prior to the story's setting, a General seized power in Astilia, promising to make the trains run on time. When he failed to achieve this, he was himself overthrown.

"Secret Names"[]

Chieftain of a rival tribe[]

A rival chieftain in Eestexas was threatening to declare war against Chief Ralf's people, until Shaman Madyu discovered the chieftain's true name, and threatened to do dreadful things to the man’s ghost in the afterlife, unless he called off his warriors.

"Someone Is Stealing the Great Throne Rooms of the Galaxy"[]

Galactic Emperor and Empress[]

Mentioned in passing, with the implication that they are absolute monarchs of the Galactic Empire. There is the further implication from the text that they are not as popular as they might like to be, but that it is not safe to express disapproval of their government. There is no clue as to what species they are.[54]

Southern Victory[]

Premier of Quebec[]

In The Center Cannot Hold, the Premier of the Republic of Quebec marches at the funeral of former US President Theodore Roosevelt in 1924. (Two Central American heads of state accompany the Premier, with neither country specified.)[55] In the same year, the Premier pledges Quebecois aide to quell the Canadian uprising.[56] In 1925, newsreel footage presented in Rosenfeld shows the Premier conducting a ceremony on a bridge with President Upton Sinclair.[57]


Prime Minister of Israel[]

The Prime Minister is a man, but is not otherwise described. He delivers a speech promising an eye for an eye after Iran apparently launches a nuclear attack on Tel Aviv. This results in a nuclear counter-strike on Tehran and Qom.[58]

President of the United States[]

Aside from the fact that the President is a man and a Democrat in Eruption, he is not described.[59] As the series spans more than eight years, this President is probably out of office before the series ends.

Through Darkest Europe[]

Excitable Pope[]

Around 1718, a Cardinal was elected Pope, and died of joy immediately when told of this accomplishment. He was nevertheless considered to have been a true Pope, because the Holy Spirit pointed to him. Three centuries later, Giacomo Badoglio told this Pope's story to Khalid al-Zarzisi to explain why Pope Marcellus IX was not an excitable man - excitable men don't last long in the papal seat.[60]

Emperor of Germany[]

Though he purports to rule over all the German states, this monarch has no real power, and his government is too impoverished to send him to the funeral of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Italy in Rome. A couple of "lesser" German monarchs are able to afford the journey, but none are specified.

King of Aragon and Queen of Castile[]

The monarchs of the two most important Spanish states arrive at the funeral of Cosimo III in the same airplane, causing much public speculation.

Sultan and Wazir of the Maghrib[]

One of the world's more enlightened and progressive nations is governed by a monarchical head of state and a parliamentary head of government. The Sultan is implied to be a figurehead, with all true power resting with the Wazir.

Sultan and Wazir of the Seljuk Empire[]

The same power arrangement as in the Maghrib applies here as well. The Wazir attends the funeral of Cosimo III.

The Two Georges[]

Emperor of Austria[]

The Austrian Empire is ruled by the House of Hapsburg.[61] Its head of state is presumably the Emperor, but he is not named or described.

Tsar of Russia[]

The reigning Tsar of Russia is referenced throughout the novel, but never named. 

Prime Minister of Britain[]

An unnamed female Prime Minister governs Britain in 1995, and makes a statement after the painting The Two Georges is stolen. This wiki previously endorsed the popular consensus identifying her as Margaret Thatcher, but has since removed it, as there is no evidence either way.

The Valley-Westside War[]

Producer and Director of Burbank[]

Mentioned in passing by Sergeant Chuck talking to Private Dan.[62]

Videssos Series[]

Maleinos II's Predecessors as Avtokrator of Videssos[]

In Bridge of the Separator, it is mentioned a number of times by various characters that Rhavas' grandmother was Maleinos II's grandfather's sister and that the grandfather was an usurper the way Stylianos was. Neither the grandfather nor the Avtokrator he overthrew or his son who presumably was Maleinos II's immediate predecessor were named.

King of Agder[]

Mentioned in passing in Krispos of Videssos, this king subscribes to the Balance of Phos heresy.[63]


President of Peru[]

One of the leaders of the few remaining free countries at the time of the story, El Presidente presides over a rump state located around the Andes Mountains. United States President Harris Moffatt III spoke to El Presidente by phone on occasion.

Ruler of the Krolp[]

Harris Moffatt III thinks briefly about this ruler, who has a position with no analog in Earth history. "He wasn’t exactly a king or a president or an ayatollah." This ruler receives numerous petitions from humans as well as his own kind, and occasionally responds to some of them.


Risson's predecessor as the Emperor of the Race[]

The Emperor who ruled the Race in the early 1920s, and who formally ordered Fleetlord Atvar to conquer Tosev 3, is mentioned in Homeward Bound, but not by name. It is said that he was more interested in form and ceremony than in the substance of policy, a marked difference from the incumbent at the time of the novel, the 37th Emperor Risson. This emperor is referred to as "His Majesty's predecessor" and is implied, though not explicitly stated, to have been Risson's immediate predecessor.[64] The Conquest Fleet celebrated this emperor's hatching day as a holiday during their war against the Big Five. Due to the difference in the amounts of time it took Earth and Home to complete orbits of their respective suns, this holiday would occur twice in one Tosevite year, to the confusion of many human observers such as Liu Han and Nieh Ho-Ting.[65] The same Emperor gave the order for Atvar's recall to Home at the beginning of Homeward Bound.


  1. See e.g. Agent of Byzantium, 2018 edition, pgs. 138-139.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid., p. 234.
  4. Alpha and Omega, p. 62, hc.
  5. Ibid., pgs. 222-223.
  6. Ibid., pg. 393, ebook.
  7. Ibid. pg. 399.
  8. Ibid., pgs. 222-223.
  9. Alpha and Omega, pgs. 81-82.
  10. Ibid, p. 465.
  11. Ibid., pg. 64.
  12. Liberating Atlantis, p. 213.
  13. Ibid.
  14. And the Last Trump Shall Sound, pg. 57.
  15. The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump, loc. 2446, ebook.
  16. Ibid., loc. 5859.
  17. Ibid., loc. 591.
  18. E.g., 3xT, p. 404, HC.
  19. Ibid.
  20. The Disunited States of America, pg. 278.
  21. The Gladiator, pg. 279, HC.
  22. In High Places, pg. 256, HC.
  23. Curious Notions, pg. 43, MMP.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Ibid., pg. 185.
  26. Ibid., pg. 43.
  27. Ibid. pg. 43.
  28. Ibid.
  29. The Disunited States of America, pg. 41.
  30. Every Inch a King, TPB, pg. 37.
  31. Ibid., p. 93.
  32. In High Places, pg. 15.
  33. In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 73.
  34. Ibid., pgs. 51-53.
  35. Ibid., pgs. 51-52.
  36. Ibid. pg. 73.
  37. Ibid., p. 385.
  38. Ibid., p. 225.
  39. Ibid., p. 422.
  40. Ibid., pg. 422.
  41. Ibid., pg. 107.
  42. Ibid., pg. 51.
  43. Ibid., pg. 225.
  44. Ibid., pg. 72.
  45. Ibid., p. 422
  46. Ibid., p. 72.
  47. Ibid., pg. 73, HC.
  48. Ibid., p. 422
  49. Departures, p. 74.
  50. Ibid., pgs. 69, 82.
  51. E.g., 3xT, p. 7, HC.
  52. Ibid.
  53. Ibid., p. 162.
  54. Federations. 2009: Prime Books. p 95.
  55. The Center Cannot Hold pg. 37, HC.
  56. Ibid., pg. 48.
  57. Ibid., pg. 82.
  58. Eruption, pg. 325-326.
  59. Ibid., e.g. pg. 54.
  60. Through Darkest Europe, p. 274.
  61. The Two Georges, p. 320, HC.
  62. The Valley-Westside War, p. 19.
  63. The Tale of Krispos, p. 508.
  64. Homeward Bound p. 231 et al
  65. Upsetting the Balance pp 482, 488.