This page lists fictional heads of state and/or government who are the referenced incumbent but unnamed office-holders, in the works of Harry Turtledove (and, rarely, Laura Frankos), OR are posthumously referenced, but their role is relevant to understanding the plot or background of a given work. Usually the reference is relegated to a few sentences.  

Agent of ByzantiumEdit

King of Kings of the Persian EmpireEdit

Referenced in broad strokes in "Archetypes" (set in 1316) and "Superwine" (set in 1320). As ruler of the Roman Empire's chief rival Persia, this monarch presides over many schemes which seek to undermine Roman power along the border. These schemes are carried out with the help of the spy Mirrane.

Grand Wazir of the Persian EmpireEdit

Referenced in "Images," set in 1317. This prime minister gives Mirrane her marching orders.[1]


Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireEdit

In 1852, Jeremiah Stafford tells Leland Newton that the Grand Turk (common slang for the Ottoman Sultan) has been murdering Armenians "for sport" without suffering consequences.[2] This behavior could hardly be any further from the nature of Abdul Majid I, who reigned 1839-1861 in OTL. Abdul Majid was one of the most enlightened monarchs in the Empire's history, famously passing laws ensuring tolerance for non-Muslims, civil rights, and the beginning of gradual emancipation of slaves. Armenians in Turkey never suffered any particular persecution until the close of the 19th century, with the Genocide devastating their people only in the 1910s. Apparently, in the Atlantis timeline, a butterfly effect put a much crueler Sultan on the throne in the 1850s.

Czar of RussiaEdit

Stafford follows his point about the Ottoman Sultan (see above) by suggesting that the Russian Czar is doing the same thing to Jews.[3] As with the former example, this suggests a ruler other than OTL's Nicholas I, who reigned 1825-1855. While quite autocratic and restrictive of freedom of the press, Nicholas never singled out any specific minority group for persecution, and his reign saw hardly any anti-Semitic violence. In fact, while isolated incidents of violence toward Jews occurred in the far fringes of the Empire before and after Nicholas' reign, the archetypical "pogrom" did not take its quintessential form until the 1880s, during the reign of his grandson Alexander III.

The Case of the Toxic Spell DumpEdit

King and Prime Minister of the Confederated ProvincesEdit

The Confederated Provinces is an analog of the United States, but is a constitutional monarchy, rather than a republic, with a king and a prime minister. Both are mentioned in passing by their titles only. The king is described as a figurehead, and the prime minister is described as having the real power, although that is a recent development.[4]

Emperor of AzteciaEdit

The Empire of Aztecia is an analog of Mexico, though Aztec culture remains a more dominant influence. Towards the end of the novel, the reigning emperor has his entire cabinet put to death.[5]

Deposed Shahanshah of PersiaEdit

The monarch of Persia was overthrown in recent memory and replaced by a secularist republic. A large number of his supporters live in exile in Angels City.[6] The character is a loose analog of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the final Shah of Iran in OTL.

Crosstime Traffic home timelineEdit

Shah and Prime Minister of IranEdit

These two figures are mentioned in passing. The Prime Minister survived an assassination attempt in the 2090s.[7]

Prime Minister of ItalyEdit

While visiting the home timeline, Gianfranco Mazzilli is amazed by how openly critical people are of the Prime Minister of Italy, noting that in his own world, people would go to prison camps for even thinking such things about a government official.[8]

King of SpainEdit

When Jacques moves to the Spain of the home timeline, he's initially astonished that the reigning King of Spain is a mere figurehead.[9]

Curious NotionsEdit

Emperor of Austria-HungaryEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably in power as a consequence of his country's alliance with Germany.[10]

Emperor of BrazilEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1889.[11]

Emperor of ChinaEdit

Mentioned as being the focal point of a plot to challenge the German Empire by setting up a Chinese one to rival it.[12]

King of EnglandEdit

Mentioned in passing, it's unclear whether he rules Great Britain or literally just England.[13]

Kaiser of the German EmpireEdit

In the late 21st century, this unnamed Kaiser is the de facto ruler of most of the world.

Sultan of the Ottoman EmpireEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably still in power as a consequence of his country's alliance with Germany.[14]

King of PortugalEdit

Mentioned in passing; presumably, the German Empire restored this monarchy which had been overthrown in 1910, four years before the break-point.[15]

A Different FleshEdit

Censors of the FCA in 1804Edit

Referenced in passing by in "Though the Heavens Fall." In office for the 1800-1805 term, these two men share the position of Censor of the Federated Commonwealths of America. They are from opposite parties, and each one vetoes every proposition put forth by the other, resulting in an administration sure to become legendary for its inefficiency. Harry Stowe hopes that the election of 1804 will result in better leadership. He intends to vote for the Adams-Westerbrook straight ticket, rather than a split ticket. Though the story continues into 1805, the outcome of this election is never revealed.

Monarch of England in 1805Edit

Mentioned in passing by Alfred Douglas in "Though the Heavens Fall". Douglas describes the monarch of England as "a tyrant;" as this statement is part of a jingoistic lecture on the superiority of the American system, his assessment is probably not unbiased.

The Disunited States of AmericaEdit

Prime Minister of CaliforniaEdit

Mentioned in passing as man with a fondness for casual fashion, which is in keeping with the customs of his country.[16]

"Down in the Bottomlands"Edit

King of MorgafEdit

Mentioned in passing.

Prince of LissonlandEdit

Mentioned in passing.

The GladiatorEdit

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Italian People's RepublicEdit

Mentioned several times throughout the novel, he rules the country where most of the novel takes place.

The House of DanielEdit

Russia's late CzarEdit

An analog of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia was killed c. 1918 in a revolution which may have been vampirically inspired.[17]

In High PlacesEdit

Pope and the King of FranceEdit

In 1381, toward the end of the decades-long outbreak of the Great Black Deaths which devastated northern Europe, the Pope and the King of France ordered the death on the wheel of a heretical cult leader named Henri. The day after Henri's death, these two heads of state, while relishing in their triumph, were killed in a freak accident involving the structural collapse of a church in which they were praying. Other important higher-ups were killed in the same disaster.[18]

In the Presence of Mine EnemiesEdit

Perón of ArgentinaEdit

In 2010, the Perón describes the recently-deceased Führer, Kurt Haldweim, as a model for all rulers aspiring to greatness. [19]

King of BulgariaEdit

In 2010, the King of Bulgaria receives the Poglavnik of Croatia on an official state visit, celebrating a victory over Serb terrorism. Video footage of the two men embracing is shown on the Seven O'clock News. [20]

Poglavnik of CroatiaEdit

With the Axis triumphant, Croatia's Poglavnik remains a nominally independent ruler, although the Greater German Reich still wielded a great deal of influence over the policies of Croatia.

In 2010, the incumbent Poglavnik of Croatia travels to Sofia to meet with the King of Bulgaria after the discovery of hidden Jews in Serbia.[21] A few months later, the Poglavnik declares a day of mourning when Germany's Führer Kurt Haldweim dies, stating that Haldweim's memory would live in the hearts of men forever.[22] In 2011, the Poglavnik meets with Haldweim's successor Heinz Buckliger who is visiting Croatia.[23]

Leader of DenmarkEdit

In 2010, the leader of Denmark joins other world leaders in praising Heinz Buckliger's decision to ease the debt owed by the American.[24] In 2011, the Dane is one of several leaders to condemn the SS Putsch.[25]

Leader of FinlandEdit

The leader of Finland is mentioned in the same paragraphs as the above Dane, making the exact same statements.

Premier of FranceEdit

Joins with other critics of the 2011 Putsch "in principle".[26]

Duce of the Italian EmpireEdit

Although King Umberto is the nominal ruler, the Duce wields the actual power in Italy.[27] Umberto expresses his condolences upon the death of Kurt Haldweim, calling him a man of power and of peace.[28] He is initially supportive of Heinz Buckliger.[29]

Emperor of JapanEdit

The Emperor of Japan expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Kurt Haldweim.[30]

Leader of NorwayEdit

In 2011, the leader of Norway joins several colleagues in condemning the 2011 Putsch.[31]

Emperor of ManchukuoEdit

The Emperor of Manchukuo expresses sympathy for the German people upon the death of Haldweim, along with the Japanese Emperor.[32]

Caudillo of SpainEdit

The Caudillo of Spain describes Kurt Haldweim as a man of world-historical proportions.[33]

Leader of SwedenEdit

In 2011, the leader of Sweden joins several colleagues in condemning the 2011 Putsch.[34]

"Islands in the Sea"Edit

Khan of the AvarsEdit

Mentioned by Telerikh, who sardonically says that he would be pleased to be Khan of the Avars as well as the Bulgars.[35]

King of the FranksEdit

Mentioned as ruling one of the more powerful independent Christian kingdoms remaining in Europe.[36]

"Leg Irons, the Bitch and the Wardrobe"Edit

King of the neighboring countryEdit

This monarch rules the unnamed country which borders Leffing. His son Prince Harrold played him in The King and Me, which the real king was not happy with.

"Les Mortes d'Arthur"Edit

Czar of SiberiaEdit

This monarch rules the kingdom which split off from the Soviet Union sometime in the 21st or 22nd century.

"None So Blind"Edit

Emperor of MussalmiEdit

This monarch sponsored Baron Toivo's zoological expedition to the tropical continent, and had at least two predecessors.

"Running of the Bulls"Edit

Dictator of AstiliaEdit

Some time prior to the story's setting, a General seized power in Astilia, promising to make the trains run on time. When he failed to achieve this, he was himself overthrown.

"Someone Is Stealing the Great Throne Rooms of the Galaxy"Edit

Galactic Emperor and EmpressEdit

Mentioned in passing, with the implication that they are absolute monarchs. There is the further implication from the text that they are not as popular as they might like to be, but that it is not safe to express disapproval of their government. There is no clue as to what species they are.[37]

Southern VictoryEdit

The Emperor of Mexico during the Great WarEdit

The name of the Emperor who ruled Mexico during the Great War is never given. It is known that Mexico was ruled by the Hapsburgs at the time.[38] In other parts of the series, we learn that Maximilian I and Maximilian II were emperors sometime before the Great War, and that Maximilian III and Francisco José II ruled after it. Therefore, the moderators have taken a calculated leap of faith in referring to him by the logical name Francisco José I elsewhere in this wiki.

Premier of QuebecEdit

No leader of the Republic of Quebec is ever identified by name. In The Center Cannot Hold, one unnamed Quebecois leader is briefly seen at the funeral of former US President Theodore Roosevelt. It is from this scene that we know that the title of the highest official in the Quebecois government is Premier.[39]


Prime Minister of IsraelEdit

The Prime Minister is a man, but is not otherwise described. He delivers a speech promising an eye for an eye after Iran apparently launches a nuclear attack on Tel Aviv. This results in a nuclear counter-strike on Tehran and Qom.[40]

President of the United StatesEdit

Aside from the fact that the President is a man and a Democrat in Eruption, he is not described.[41] As the series spans more than eight years, this President is probably out of office before the series ends.

Vice President of the United StatesEdit

An unnamed Vice President appears in All Fall Down as the commencement speaker at Marshall Ferguson's graduation from University of California, Santa Barbara. This person shares a few characteristics with the then-incumbent Vice President, Joe Biden.[42]

Through Darkest EuropeEdit

Excitable PopeEdit

Around 1718, a Cardinal was elected Pope, and died of joy immediately when told of this accomplishment. He was nevertheless considered to have been a true Pope, because the Holy Spirit pointed to him. Three centuries later, Giacomo Badoglio told this Pope's story to Khalid al-Zarzisi to explain why Pope Marcellus IX was not an excitable man - excitable men don't last long in the papal seat.[43]

Emperor of GermanyEdit

Though he purports to rule over all the German states, this monarch has no real power, and his government is too impoverished to send him to the funeral of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Italy in Rome (a couple of nominally "lesser" monarchs are able to afford the journey, however).

King of Aragon and Queen of CastileEdit

The monarchs of the two most important Spanish states arrive at the funeral of Cosimo III in the same airplane, causing much public speculation.

Sultan and Wazir of the MaghribEdit

One of the world's more enlightened and progressive nations is governed by a monarchical head of state and a parliamentary head of government. The Sultan is implied to be a figurehead, with all true power resting with the Wazir.

Sultan and Wazir of the Seljuk EmpireEdit

The same power arrangement as in the Maghrib applies here as well. The Wazir attends the funeral of Cosimo III.

"Trantor Falls"Edit

Gilmer's RivalEdit

No sooner has Gilmer returned from his negotiations with Yokim Sarns than he learns that a rival warlord is gathering a fleet of warships within ten parsecs of Trantor in preparation for an attack on the planet. While formal legal claims of sovereignty made by warlords such as Gilmer and his rival would certainly be dubious, the state of affairs in the inner galaxy at the time of the story does appear to suggest that such warlords are the highest political authorities in the region.[44]

The Two GeorgesEdit

Emperor of AustriaEdit

The Austrian Empire is ruled by the House of Hapsburg.[45] Its head of state is presumably the Emperor, but he is not named or described.

Tsar of RussiaEdit

The reigning Tsar of Russia is referenced throughout the novel, but never named. It is probable that this Tsar is a member of the House of Romanov, but this is never stated.

Prime Minister of BritainEdit

An unnamed female Prime Minister governs Britain in 1995, and makes a statement after the The Two Georges painting is stolen. This wiki previously endorsed the popular consensus identifying her as Margaret Thatcher, but has since removed it, as there is no evidence either way.

The Valley-Westside WarEdit

Producer and Director of BurbankEdit

Mentioned in passing by Sergeant Chuck talking to Private Dan.[46]

Videssos SeriesEdit

Maleinos II's Predecessors as Avtokrator of VidessosEdit

In Bridge of the Separator, it is mentioned a number of times by various characters that Rhavas's grandmother was Maleinos II's grandfather's sister and that the grandfather was an usurper the way Stylianos was. Neither the grandfather nor the Avtokrator he overthrew or his son who presumably was Maleinos II's immediate predecessor were named.

King of AgderEdit

Mentioned in passing in Krispos of Videssos, this king subscribes to the Balance of Phos heresy.[47]


President of PeruEdit

One of the leaders of the few remaining free countries at the time of the story, El Presidente presides over a rump state located around the Andes Mountains. United States President Harris Moffatt III spoke to El Presidente by phone on occasion.

Ruler of the KrolpEdit

Harris Moffatt III thinks briefly about this ruler, who has a position with no analog in Earth history. "He wasn’t exactly a king or a president or an ayatollah." This ruler receives numerous petitions from humans as well as his own kind, and occasionally responds to some of them.


Risson's predecessor as the Emperor of the RaceEdit

The Emperor who ruled the Race in the early 1920s, and who formally ordered Fleetlord Atvar to conquer Tosev 3, is mentioned in Homeward Bound, but not by name. It is said that he was more interested in form and ceremony than in the substance of policy, a marked difference from the incumbent at the time of the novel, the 37th Emperor Risson. This emperor is referred to as "His Majesty's predecessor" and is implied, though not explicitly stated, to have been Risson's immediate predecessor.[48] The Conquest Fleet celebrated this emperor's hatching day as a holiday during their war against the Big Five. Due to the difference in the amounts of time it took Earth and Home to complete orbits of their respective suns, this holiday would occur twice in one Tosevite year, to the confusion of many human observers such as Liu Han and Nieh Ho-Ting.[49]


  1. See e.g. Agent of Byzantium, 2018 edition, p. 234.
  2. Liberating Atlantis, p. 213.
  3. Ibid.
  4. The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump, loc. 2446, ebook.
  5. Ibid., loc. 5859.
  6. Ibid., loc. 591.
  7. The Disunited States of America, pg. 278.
  8. The Gladiator, pg. 279, HC.
  9. In High Places, pg. 256, HC.
  10. Curious Notions, pg. 43, MMP.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid., pg. 185.
  13. Ibid., pg. 43.
  14. Ibid. pg. 43.
  15. Ibid.
  16. The Disunited States of America, pg. 41.
  17. Ibid., p. 93.
  18. In High Places, pg. 15.
  19. In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 73.
  20. Ibid., pgs. 51-53.
  21. Ibid., pgs. 51-52.
  22. Ibid. pg. 73.
  23. Ibid., p. 385.
  24. Ibid., p. 225.
  25. Ibid., p. 422.
  26. Ibid., pg. 422.
  27. Ibid., pg. 107.
  28. Ibid., pg. 51.
  29. Ibid., pg. 225.
  30. Ibid., pg. 72.
  31. Ibid., p. 422
  32. Ibid., p. 72.
  33. Ibid., pg. 73, HC.
  34. Ibid., p. 422
  35. Departures, p. 74.
  36. Ibid., p. 69, 82.
  37. Federations. 2009: Prime Books. p 95.
  38. Walk in Hell p 304
  39. The Center Cannot Hold pg. 37.
  40. Eruption, pg. 325-326.
  41. Ibid., e.g. pg. 54.
  42. All Fall Down, pgs. 12-14, HC.
  43. Through Darkest Europe, p. 274.
  44. Greenberg, Martin ed. Foundation's Friends: Stories in Honor of Isaac Asimov. New York: Tor, 1989. p 91.
  45. The Two Georges, p. 320, HC.
  46. The Valley-Westside War, p. 19.
  47. The Tale of Krispos, p. 508.
  48. Homeward Bound p 231 et al
  49. Upsetting the Balance pp 482, 488.