Republic of China
Capital: Taipei
National Language: Mandarin
Government: Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
Status in OTL: Active with limited recognition

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a sovereign state off the east coast of Asia. The Republic of China, originally based in mainland China, now governs the island of Taiwan, formerly known to Westerners as Formosa (Portuguese word for beautiful), which makes up over 99% of its territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands.

Formosa's first human inhabitants arrived some 8000 years prior to a Han migration from mainland China in the 17th Century. Concurrently, Formosa was also colonized by the Dutch and Portuguese. A pro-Ming government was established in 1662, which expelled the Europeans, but that fell in 1683 to the Qing Dynasty, which annexed Formosa outright to China. Formosa, now most commonly called "Taiwan", was ceded to Japan in 1895, and remained under Japanese rule until the end of World War II in 1945. At the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party took control of mainland China, and ousted the government of the Republic of China (ROC), which had been established in 1912. The ROC fled to Taiwan, and for a time enjoyed official recognition as the "true" government of China. However, this recognition has eroded with the passing decades, and most governments now recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) on the mainland as the "true" China.

From its foundation to the 1980s, Taiwan was a one-party state under the rule of the Kuomintang. However, the tight reins of the government began to ease in the 1980s, and Taiwan is now a generally functional democracy. As the Chinese Civil War never officially ended, Taiwan has substantial military fortifications. For several decades, it also maintained a mutual defense with the United States. The ROC does not seek to reinstall itself on the mainland, and its status as an independent nation is not truly legal for a number of complicated reasons. For its part, the PRC considers itself the successor state to the Republic of China (ROC) and therefore entitled to all its holdings, including Taiwan, and has frequently made it clear that any move by the ROC to declare itself a truly independent nation-state will be met with force.

Literary comment[]

In most Harry Turtledove works, taking place or having a Point of Divergence before 1949, Taiwan is referred to as "Formosa", and is more often than not under the rule of Japan.

Taiwan in The Hot War[]

The United States pointedly recognized Chiang Kai-Shek as the legitimate leader of China even though he only held Formosa. The outbreak of World War III certainly didn't change their position.[1]

Taiwan in Southern Victory[]

Formosa was annexed by Japan after it defeated China in a war in the 1890s.

Taiwan in The Two Georges[]

The island of Formosa constituted the southwestern limit of the Empire of Japan. Further expansion was blocked by the Franco-Spanish Holy Alliance's holdings of the Spanish Philippines.[2]

Taiwan in Worldwar[]

Formosa remained under control of Japan during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. It was recognized as Japanese territory under the Peace of Cairo in 1944.


  1. Bombs Away, pg. 373 e-book.
  2. Map The Two Georges, frontispiece.