The Roman Republic in 44 BC.

The Roman Republic was the period of ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 509 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate. The Roman Republic saw an extended period of political instability, including several civil wars, from circa 133 BC to 30 BC, which ultimately saw the end of the Republic and the arrival of the Roman Empire in its place. As the Roman Republic was never formally abolished, the exact date of its transition into the Empire is a matter of debate, but the most commonly accepted date is 27 BC, when Octavian Caesar adopted the title of "Augustus."

Note: This article applies to most of Harry Turtledove's timelines where the point of departure came after 27 BC.

Roman Republic in Atlantis[]

The government of the United States of Atlantis was closely based on the Roman Republic, with a Senate headed by two Consuls who could hold each other in check with veto power. The Atlantean Army was made subject to the Senate, with the Consuls personally overseeing it in wartime, to further ensure that the nation would not fall under military rule.

Roman Republic in A Different Flesh[]

When the Federated Commonwealths of America declared independence from England in 1738, they used the Roman Republic as a template for the new nation, in its style of government with a two-headed executive branch, Latin slogans on important monuments and offices, the naming of currency units, and, less admirably but luckily only for less than a century, the institution of slavery.[1]

Roman Republic in In High Places[]

In an alternate unknown to Crosstime Traffic, the Roman Republic was defeated in the Samnite Wars in the 4th century BC. Consequently, Rome never created an empire, and no one dominated the Mediterranean. No other European culture filled the gap left by Rome's defeat. Neither Christianity nor Islam ever existed. Technology in that alternate remained at a Bronze Age level in the late 21st century.[2]

Renegade crosstimers used this alternate as a home base for an illegal slavery ring, enslaving both the natives to the alternate, and bringing in slaves from other low-tech alternates.

Roman Republic in Videssos[]

A scouting column of soldiers from the Roman Republic were transported across worlds from Gaul to the Empire of Videssos. They found the Videssian form of monarchy very peculiar, and overcame much resulting culture shock as they settled into their new homeland.[3]


  1. See, e.g., A Different Flesh, p. 128, 156, also "Though the Heavens Fall" generally.
  2. In High Places, pg. 245, mmp.
  3. See The Videssos Cycle, generally.