Newfoundland is a province of Canada, the tenth to join the Confederation. It is bordered by Quebec to the south and west along with the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
Newfoundland was established as England's first North American colony in 1583. After a century of rivalry between England and France over the island, Britain took control after the end of the Seven Years' War. The British established the first responsible government in Newfoundland in 1854, but it remained a colony until 1907, when it was granted dominion status. The Dominion of Newfoundland joined Canada on 31 March 1949.
Since 1964, the province's government has referred to itself as the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, and on 6 December 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador. In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as Newfoundland and to the region on the Canadian mainland as Labrador.
During the Second Great War, the U.S. established weather stations in Newfoundland to improve forecasting in the North Atlantic. Britain did likewise with clandestine stations in isolated areas. Military garrisons guarding these stations frequently engaged in small skirmishes. Britain also ran guns to insurgents fighting the Americans.