New Spain was a viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional': North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. New Spain was ruled by a viceroy in Mexico City who governed the various territories of New Spain on behalf of the King of Spain. New Spain was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and at its greatest extent included much of North America south of Canada: all of present-day Mexico and Central America (except Panama), most of the United States west of the Mississippi River and the Floridas.
New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies (Philippines, Guam, the Caroline Islands, Taiwan, Sabah, and parts of the Moluccas) and the Spanish West Indies (Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Trinidad, and the Bay Islands).
New Spain in "Eyewear"
While part of an expedition in the northern areas of New Spain, a Moorish slave named Estevánico came into possession of a piece of eyewear which allowed him to see into the future. Subsequently, the eyewear was stolen from him. It was recovered over a century later by the Tewa leader Po'pay, who used the eyewear in his revolt against the Spanish.
New Spain in The Two Georges
Nueva España was Spain's reasonably solid foot-hold in North America. It consisted of a number of provinces on the mainland, between the North American Union and Spain's South American holding of Nueva Granada. These provinces were the three directly bordering the NAU (west to east): Sinacoa, Nueva Vizcaya and Nuevo León with the province of Mexico to the south and Guatemala still farther south. To the east of Mexico was the province of Yucatan on the peninsula of the same name. Nueva España also included the Caribbean islands of Cuba, Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico, Santiago, and the Virgin Islands.
The Holy Alliance and Nueva España were however, no match for Britain and the NAU. Indeed, Nueva España had lost certain provinces to the NAU which became the provinces of Upper and Lower California, Phoenix, Cranmer, and Louisiana.
Nuevespañolans in the territories north of the new border were reasonably loyal to Britain, quite a few of them serving its police and armed forces - though the Franco-Spanish continually tried to stir up discontent among them.
- Map The Two Georges, frontispiece.