|Capital:||Amsterdam (Government seat in The Hague)|
|Government:||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Status in OTL:||Active|
The Netherlands, also called Holland, is a country in northern Europe, in the region often called the "Low Countries" or "low lands". It borders Germany, Belgium, and the North Sea. It is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, one of the first parliamentary democracies in Europe. Economically and politically, the Netherlands has been one of Europe's most liberal countries.
Netherlands in Atlantis
In the 1660s, the Netherlands' shipping and colonies were threatened by pirates operating out of Avalon, Atlantis. The Netherlands joined England and its Atlantean colonists in successfully crushing the Avalon pirates.
Netherlands in Days of Infamy
The Netherlands had already been conquered by the Germans when the Japanese entered World War II. The East Indies were the major goal of the Japanese and being completely unprepared in the Far East, the Dutch were soundly defeated on both land and sea, and thrown out of the Pacific.
Netherlands in "The Eighth-Grade History Class Visits the Hebrew Home for the Aging"
Anne Frank and her family immigrated to the Netherlands from Germany due to the rising tide of anti-Semitism under the Nazis. Anne was particularly good at speaking Dutch, which she teased her parents about.
After the German invasion of Holland, the Franks went into hiding in the Secret Annexe of an office building in Amsterdam. They were forced to share the congested space with another family and a dentist. Like the rest of the Netherlands, they experienced starvation during the Hunger Winter.
Netherlands in The Guns of the South
Some Confederate people believed that the Rivington Men came from the Netherlands, as they were often overheard to speak to each other in a foreign language which sounded like Dutch. Interpreter Avram Goldfarb, who had often done mercantile business in Amsterdam, disproved this when he examined a book written in their language, and found that it was neither Dutch nor German, but appeared to be a "mishmash" of several languages including these.
Netherlands in The Hot War
The Netherlands were a NATO member when World War III began. By July 1951, there was a very real possibility that the Soviet Red Army and its allies would cross overwhelmed West Germany and invade the Netherlands. In response, the United States withdrew its forward fighters into Dutch territory, and dropped several atomic bombs on the Soviets' forward positions in West Germany, destroying a sizable chunk of their military and forcing a retreat from the Netherlands.
Netherlands in In the Presence of Mine Enemies
The Netherlands were occupied by Germany in 1940, and, after the Axis victory in the Second World War, integrated into the German Reich. The Dutch were declared Aryans by the Nazis, and so escaped persecution.
When Heinz Buckliger became Führer of Germany in 2010, he initiated reforms which allowed more freedom for citizens and subjects of the German Reich. In response, the Dutch began demanding more national independence. Several Dutch demonstrators protested on the Adolf Hitler Platz, yelling the slogan Vrijheid (Dutch for Freedom and close to the German Freiheit) and carrying their flags. They were rounded up and arrested by the Security Police. However, they were not summarily executed as had been the custom.
The Netherlands denounced the 2011 SS-led Putsch against Buckliger. Shortly after the putsch collapsed and Buckliger was restored to power, Germany held elections. The Dutch held a general election of their own without German interference and elected a parliament with a non-Fascist majority. The Germans did not intervene.
Netherlands in "Last Flight of the Swan of the East"
Like many of the other countries, both great and small, the Netherlands participated in the race to build leviathans while expanding their own overseas territorial expansion. The Netherlands remained neutral when the Great War began in August 1914. They scrupulously maintained their neutrality in their overseas empire, including in the Dutch East Indies. German skipper Karl von Müller of the SMS Emden discovered this on August 25, 1914. The Emden had attempted to meet up with a German collier steamer outside the airspace of the Dutch half of Timor. However, Captain Umbgrove of the Dutch leviathan Tromp sent the collier on its way a few days before because it had stayed in Dutch waters for too long; belligerents were only allowed to stay for one day in three months. Umbgrove shared this with Müller.
Netherlands in Ruled Britannia
Holland was a realm in the Spanish Empire of Philip II. Its population turned to Protestantism and revolted against the militantly Catholic monarch with the support of the English Queen Elizabeth, requiring the presence of a Spanish army led by the Duke of Parma and causing the outbreak of the Anglo-Spanish War.
In 1588, a falling-out between the Dutch and the English fleets allowed the Spanish Armada to rendezvous with Parma's army at Dunkirk. The army was ferried to England, overthrew Elizabeth and replaced her with the Catholic Queen Isabella. Thus deprived of foreign support, the Dutch revolt was suppressed and Holland returned to Catholicism.
Netherlands in Southern Victory
The Netherlands remained neutral in the Great War, trading with both belligerents and siding with neither. In 1917, the Netherlands became the first truly neutral country to extend diplomatic recognition to the Republic of Quebec.
In the interwar period, the Netherlands became more involved economically with victorious Germany. This relationship was not enough to keep Japan from taking Dutch possessions in Asia. Although the Japanese compensated the Netherlands, there was an underlying threat of force in the transaction.
In the Second Great War, the pro-German Netherlands were overrun by Franco-British troops, leading the country to formally join the Central Powers. In 1943, the German Army beat back British forces across the Netherlands, liberating the country from the Entente. After liberating the whole country, the German Air Force started using bases there to bomb British cities.
Netherlands in The Two Georges
By the end of the 20th century, Holland was a minor world power, whose modest position was assured as long as there were no major wars or upheavals. Holland's modest empire included the Dutch East Indies between Asia and Australia, and Dutch Guiana in South America. Holland itself shared a long southern border with the French province of Belgium, a western and northern coast on the North Sea, and an eastern border with the Germanies.
Netherlands in The War That Came Early
In the First World War the Netherlands successfully maintained their neutrality and had profitable trading relations with both sides. In the 1930s, when the specter of a new war in Europe became increasingly manifest, the Dutch expected to repeat the same role as before, and did not build up their armed forces. They did not invest their resources in creating an armored corps or a large air force, both of which had become indispensable for waging a war. This proved a major miscalculation, as German plans for an offensive on the Western Front did include the occupation of the Netherlands and use of its territory to invade Belgium and France.
The German plan was implemented with a surprise mid-winter attack on the Netherlands in 1939, a few months after Germany completed the conquest of Czechoslovakia. A massive invasion on land was accompanied by heavy bombings from the air and the dropping of parachutists behind Dutch lines, a method never before used in warfare.
Dutch soldiers resisted courageously but hopelessly, as did Dutch police who were not trained or equipped to oppose regular soldiers. Dutch resistance was broken after five days by German planes bombing and devastating the defenseless Rotterdam, with enormous loss of life among its civilian population. Rather then have others of their cities suffer the same fate, the Dutch government capitulated, and the German Army continued southward into Belgium.
Germany occupied the Netherlands for the duration of the war with the collaboration of Anton Mussert. In April, 1944, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis were overthrown by the Committee for the Salvation of the German Nation, Germany's new leader, General Heinz Guderian agreed to withdraw troops from the Low Countries, including the Netherlands.
Netherlands in Worldwar
The Netherlands were conquered by Germany in May 1940. Under the terms of the Peace of Cairo in 1944, the Netherlands remained part of the Greater German Reich. It remained so after the Race-German War of 1965.
Prior to German conquest, the Netherlands had colonies in the East Indies and Guiana. The Peace of Cairo acknowledged the former as part of the Japanese Empire, and the latter as a colony of the Race.
- Opening Atlantis, pg. 176-177, mpb.
- Ibid., pgs. 176-257, generally.
- Days of Infamy, pg. 19, HC.
- Ibid., pg. 2, HC.
- Ibid., pg. 435.
- The Guns of the South, p. 463-464.
- Fallout, loc. 1611-1641, e-book
- Ibid. loc. 1751-1886.
- In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 25, HC.
- Ibid., pg. 258.
- Ibid., pg. 423.
- Ibid., pg. 448.
- Leviathans: Armored Skies, pgs. 312, loc. 4489, ebook.
- Ibid., pgs. 312-313, loc. 4489-4505.
- The Two Georges, frontispiece map.
- Last Orders, pg. 318-320, hc.