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This article is for minor human characters in the Worldwar tetralogy. For the list containing the non-human characters, see Minor Fictional Non-Human Characters in Worldwar

This article lists the various minor fictional human characters who appear in the Worldwar tetralogy, a subseries of the overall Worldwar franchise. Most of these characters are identified by name, but play at best a peripheral role in the series. Most were simply mentioned or had a very brief, unimportant speaking role that did not impact the plot, and never appeared again.

AloysiusEdit

(In the Balance)

Aloysius, a farmer, was a human prisoner of the Race held in Fiat, Indiana. Jens Larssen encountered Aloysius among other people when he was briefly detained in Fiat in 1942.[1]

Moisei ApfelbaumEdit

(Striking the Balance)

Moisei Solomonovich Apfelbaum was a colonel in the Soviet Red Army. He was a skinny, middle-aged man who wore steel-rimmed glasses. He was of Jewish descent. In 1944, he served as a clerk for Colonel Gleb Skriabin at a gulag outside Petrozvodsk.[2] It was here that he met prisoner David Nussboym, who agreed to act as a translator between the camp administrators and the Lizard prisoners.[3] However, Apfelbaum and Skribian used the threat of losing that position to convince Nussboym to denounce fellow prisoner Ivan Fyodorov.[4]

In an act of revenge, Nussboym later denounced Apfelbaum.[5]

ArchieEdit

(Upsetting the Balance)

Archie was an orderly at a military hospital in Chicago during the Battle of Chicago.[6] He tended to Mutt Daniels when Daniels was injured. Daniels suspected Archie was a homosexual, which made Daniels uncomfortable, but as Archie was an effective caretaker, Daniels kept his discomfort to himself.[7]

Michael ArenswaldEdit

(ItB)

Michael Arenswald (d. 1942) was part of the engineering detachment of the German Heavy Artillery Battalion Dora. He was part of an attack on a pair of the Race's ships which had landed on southern steppe of the Soviet Union, successfully destroying the 67th Emperor Sohrheb and the 56th Emperor Jossano. They were able to get off six shots in all before the Race bombed the train carrying them.[8]

AvramEdit

(StB)

Avram was a Jewish guerrilla during both Second World War and the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He was part of Casimir's group near Hrubieszów, Poland. In 1944, he and a Pole named Wladeslaw escorted Soviet pilot Ludmila Gorbunova through Poland to a German position outside Warsaw so she might gain access to a plane.[9] While the way was arduous, they arrived at their destination unharmed.[10]

During the trip, which was by wagon and went through Race-occupied parts of Poland, Avram and Gorbunova discussed the precarious and fluid political situation in Poland, which was being jostled among the Race, the Soviet Union and Germany. Avram and Wladeslaw had a good laugh Gorbunova's naive dedication to Soviet ideology, and her belief that the Soviets had invaded in September 1939 for "altruistic" reasons.[11]

BarishaEdit

(Tilting the Balance)

Barisha (b. c. 1893) owned a tavern in Split, just across the street from Diocletian's Palace. In his tavern's back room, he harbored Otto Skorzeny's commandos on the eve of their raid on the Race-held palace.[12]

Klaus BauerEdit

(ItB)

Klaus Bauer (d. 1942?) was the hull gunner in Heinrich Jäger's tank. While he was able to escape the tank during a battle with the Race, Bauer went missing shortly after, and was presumed killed.[13]

BeckEdit

(StB)

Captain Beck was General Walter von Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt's adjutant. When Soviet pilot Ludmila Gorbunova arrived to present a request for aid from General Kurt Chill, Beck initially tried to take the message from her. Gorbunova, a soldier first and foremost, refused, insisting that Chill had ordered her to deliver the message directly to Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt. Beck escorted her to the general.[14]

After the general had reviewed Gorbunova's message, he had Beck bring Gorbunova some food and a piece of paper for a response to Chill's message.[15]

Douglas BellEdit

(ItB)

Douglas Bell was a bomb-aimer in George Bagnall's RAF bomber crew, and participated in World War II and the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. His missions, including an air raid on Cologne[16] and on a Lizard ship in France[17] made him very attractive to Sylvia, a barmaid at the White Horse Inn.[18]

Stefan BerkowiczEdit

(TtB)

Stefan Berkowicz was a landlord on Mostowski Street in Lodz. Moishe Russie bargained down his unreasonable price for a flat, in the time-honored ruthless Polish-Jewish tradition.[19]

Benjamin BerkowitzEdit

(UtB)

Benjamin "Ben" Berkowitz (b. c. 1910) was a Jewish psychiatrist. He was a captain in the United States Army during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3, stationed at Hot Springs, Arkansas. He originally hailed from New York.[20]

Berkowitz explained to Sam Yeager the differences he'd observed between the Race and humans. Berkowitz believed that one of the basic principles of Freudian analysis, sexual selection, led humans to be innovators. Humans could mate more or less at will. The Race on the other hand, had periodic mating seasons. Their lack of sex drive, Berkowitz believed, was heavily related to their lack of innovation, evidenced in the invasion. Berkowitz also shared with Yeager of Straha's (who was self-exiled to the Americans) revelation of a Race probe that was sent to Earth in the 12th century, which led the Race to believe Earth would be much easier to conquer. (Upon learning this, Yeager stated with amusement that the Race had expected to be fighting "King Arthur and Richard the Lion-Hearted"). When Yeager questioned as to why the Race, who had expected to face medieval knights, would bring a large amount of military hardware, Berkowitz quoted Straha: "You do not go to war without enough tools to win. This is what we had thought".[21]

BeulahEdit

(UtB)

Beulah was Dr. Marjorie Henry's receptionist. Jens Larssen stopped in the doctor's office on his trip to Hanford, Washington. Because he was trying to get his gonorrhea treated, Larssen was initially nervous about dealing with a woman doctor. Dr. Henry had to pointedly shut her office door so Beulah wouldn't hear before Larssen would admit why he was there.[22]

Oskar BirkenfeldEdit

(StB)

Oskar Birkenfeld was a district leader with the Order Service in Lodz, Poland during the aborted Second World War and the subsequent Race Invasion of Tosev 3 in 1942. He was a chunky man with a black mustache that looked like a moth had landed on his lip. In 1944, Bunim, the Race's administrator in Lodz, ordered Birkenfeld to collect Mordechai Anielewicz for a meeting[23] on two separate occasions[24] Both times he seemed nervous that Anielewicz would refuse. The first time they met, Anielewicz used the extra centimeters of height he had on Birkenfeld to stare down on him.

Boleslaw (soldier)Edit

(StB)

Boleslaw was a soldier with the Polish Home Guard. In 1944, he and a Jewish partisan named Yitzkhak staged a fight that led to a staged riot in the streets of Lodz. The riot helped stop a convoy of Lizard lorries that were supposed to be delivering supplies to a Race attack on a German position outside the town. Mordechai Anielewicz and Bertha Fleishman watched the riot. Anielewicz thought both Boleslaw and Yitzkhak deserved Academy Awards for their performance.[25]

Martin BorckeEdit

(TtB, StB)

Martin Borcke was a Hauptmann with General Kurt Chill's forces at Pskov. He spoke English, and acted as translator for the RAF men who'd brought radar technology to the Soviet forces also located at Pskov. Borcke shared the tense round of negotiations with George Bagnall, and communicated to Chill Bagnall's proposal that the Germans copy the blueprints for the radar before they were sent to Moscow.[26]

Later, Borcke escorted Bagnall to a parlay with the Race's officers concerning a prisoner exchange.[27]

BrockelmannEdit

(StB)

Lt. Col. Brockelmann was a member of Otto Skorzeny's unit. In 1944, Polish snipers, in service to the Race, shot Brockelmann, who looked very much like Skorzeny from a distance.[28]

Nathan BrodskyEdit

(ItB)

Nathan Brodsky was a Jewish worker at the Warsaw airport after the Race first occupied Poland. He also learned much of the Race's language. In 1942, he informed Mordechai Anielewicz of the Race's plan to attack Ploesti, Romania in an effort to deprive Germany of oil. Anielewicz warned the proper German authorities.[29]

Dr. BurkettEdit

(ItB)

Dr. Burkett was a biology professor at the University of Chicago when the Race's Conquest Fleet invaded Earth in 1942. When American forces captured several Race prisoners of war, Dr. Burkett met with some of them, including Ullhass and Ristin, in his office to study their biology. Barbara Larssen briefly worked as his secretary, and in this capacity, she met her future husband, soldier Sam Yeager, who escorted the prisoners to and from Burkett's office.[30]

Burkett was dismayed when he learned that Enrico Fermi had custody of Race POWs the following day.[31]

Jack CalhounEdit

(UtB)

Jack[32] Calhoun was a cavalry officer with the United States Army during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He was under Rance Auerbach's command. In 1942, Calhoun participated on the attack on Race-held Lydia, Kansas. Calhoun and Max Hagerman were assigned to carry a Race POW to Lamar, Colorado.[33]

Casimir (Partisan)Edit

(StB)

Casimir was the leader of a band of anti-Lizard partisans in Hrubieszów, Poland. Soviet pilot Ludmila Gorbunova was briefly stranded with Casimir's group in 1944. Initially, Casimir was content to let Gorbunova fight alongside his group, but after she directly confronted him, even going so far as to brandish her pistol at him, Casimir arranged for her to be escorted to a German position near Warsaw where she might find another plane.[34]

ChaimEdit

(StB)

Chaim was a Jewish partisan near Lodz, Poland. He and another partisan named Saul took possession of the explosive-metal bomb Mordechai Anielewicz captured from Otto Skorzeny in 1944. They agreed to hide it somewhere as a trump card against their enemies.[35]

Otto ChaseEdit

(ItB)

Otto Chase was a cement worker from Dixon, Illinois. When his place of employment was destroyed by the Race's Conquest Fleet in 1942, he enlisted in the United States Army.[36] He saw combat against the Race with Sam Yeager and Mutt Daniels. Yeager convinced Chase of the value of treating captured members of the Race humanely as prisoners of war.[37]

Horace ChungEdit

(UtB)

Horace Chung ran a laundry, also called Chung's, in Lewiston, Idaho. Jens Larssen stopped in Chung's on his trip to Hanford, Washington in 1943. He left a load of laundry, and then mentioned that he was going to Mama's, an establishment next to Chung's, which Larssen assumed was a restaurant. This elicited a giggle from Chung, which Larssen didn't understand until he went next door, and learned Mama's was a brothel, not a restaurant.[38] When Larssen returned, Chung handed him his laundry, and then giggled at Larssen again.[39]

Colonel CollinsEdit

(ItB)

Collins (b. c. 1887) was a United States Army colonel. He took custody of the Race prisoners of war captured by Sam Yeager and Mutt Daniels. He also accepted Yeager as a volunteer to help study the POWs, and gave promotions to all the soldiers in the unit.[40]

CzeslawEdit

Pappy DanielsEdit

(ItB)

"Pappy" Daniels served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, who fought in the Battle of the Wilderness. At the turn of the 20th century, "Pappy" told his war experiences to his grandson Pete, who was mindful of the stories' lessons during his own service in World War I and the Race Invasion of Tosev 3.[41]

DaphneEdit

(ItB)

Daphne was a barmaid at the White Horse Inn, in Dover, England. Although both Jerome Jones and David Goldfarb persued Daphne and her fellow barmaid Sylvia, the two women preferred RAF pilots to radar operators, despite Jones and Goldfarb's best efforts.[42]

By 1943, Daphne no longer worked at the White Horse Inn. Rumor had it that she was pregnant with twins.[43] She was fondly remembered by George Bagnall's crew as they made their way home from Pskov.[44]

DavidEdit

(ItB)

David was the son of a Jewish fighter living in Warsaw, Poland. He and a young woman named Leah acted as decoys, standing in for Reuven and Rivka Russie, respectively, thus allowing the mother and her son to escape from the Race when Moishe Russie refused to broadcast propaganda for them.[45]

DocEdit

(UtB)

"Doc" was the nickname of a black doctor working as a U.S. Army medic in Illinois in 1943. He treated Mutt Daniels when Daniels was shot in the buttock. Daniels, a Mississippi native, was initially surprised that a colored doctor was tending him. However, he didn't refuse help from Doc, and both achieved cordiality throughout their brief encounter. Once the wound was cleaned, and Daniels was off the battlefield, Doc moved on to other patients.[46]

Colonel DoiEdit

(ItB)

Doi was a colonel in the Imperial Japanese Army. He interrogated Teerts about the Race's air-war tactics. He also assured Teerts that Japan's notions about the afterlife, of all of those on Earth, were the only correct ones.[47]

Hans DölgerEdit

(StB)

Colonel Hans Dölger was General Kurt Chill's adjutant in Pskov. He didn't appear to like Englishmen much, and he continued to view Russians as Untermenschen, unlike some of the other Germans in Pskov.[48]

Kevin DonlanEdit

(ItB, TtB)

Kevin Donlan was a young private in the United States Army.[49] He served with Mutt Daniels in Illinois in the fight against the Race's Conquest Fleet.[50] He participated in General George Patton's winter counter-offensive in 1942.[51]

During a battle in early 1943, Donlan lost his left foot to an explosion.[52]

Yakov DonskoiEdit

(StB)

Yakov Beniaminovich Donskoi, a birdlike little man, was Foreign Commissar Vycheslav Molotov's translator at the Peace of Cairo in 1944.[53]

DonnellyEdit

(StB)

Donnelly was part of a U.S. Army bomb disposal unit. He and his colleagues examined an unexploded shell dropped by the Race during the Battle of Chicago. He confirmed for his superior officer, as well as Mutt Daniels, who was also present, that the bomb was a dud.[54]

Colonel EasterEdit

(StB)

Colonel Easter was a British Army officer stationed in Haifa in 1944. He briefly escorted the Russie family in a horse-drawn carriage before the vehicle was waylaid by Menachem Begin's band of partisans, who took the Russies off Easter's hands.[55]

EdieEdit

(UtB)

Edie was a prostitute at Mama's in Lewiston, Idaho. Jens Larssen had a brief tryst with her while waiting for his clothes at the laundry next door. She had curly blond hair, and looked a little like his estranged wife, Barbara. She was quite blunt and professional during intercourse. Afterwards, she offered Larssen another round and even some alcohol, but he declined. Only when he was done did he realize that he hadn't worn a condom and had probably given Edie gonorrhea.[56]

Wolfgang EschenbachEdit

(UtB)

Wolfgang Eschenbach was the loader in Heinrich Jäger's tank for a brief period in mid-1943 in Alsace. He was a big blond farmboy who hardly spoke more than a dozen words. He participated in a drive against the Race near Rouffach.[57]

Sam FinkelsteinEdit

(ItB)

Dr. Sam Finkelstein treated the wounded Race prisoners of war captured by Sam Yeager. Colonel Collins took special note of the fact that Finkelstein was a Jew. Both Yeager and Finkelstein were briefly amused by the fact that they shared the same first name.[58]

Finnish officerEdit

(ItB)

A Finnish officer showed hospitality to Ludmila Gorbunova during her stopover at the Finnish-Soviet border town of Viipuri, escorting Vyacheslav Molotov to a meeting with the German high command. The man wore a German-style Stahlhelm and spoke in German as a common language. He was a bit uncomfortable at the sight of a Soviet officer, but showed her good hospitality, including the use of a sauna.[59]

Giuseppe FioreEdit

(ItB-TtB)

Giuseppe "Joe" Fiore immigrated from Italy to America at the turn of the 20th century, settling in Pittsburgh, where he started a bakery. Joe's brother followed him there sometime afterward. Joe kept the bakery in business by paying protection to organized crime. Joe's son eventually took over the family business, while Joe's brother's son Bobby Fiore became a baseball player roving around the country.[60]

FredEdit

(ItB)

Fred was a human prisoner of the Race held in Fiat, Indiana. Jens Larssen encountered Fred among other people when he was briefly detained in Fiat in 1942.[61]

FriedrichEdit

(UtB)

Friedrich (d. 1943) was the name of a German soldier who joined a partisan band in Poland after the Race invaded Earth in 1942. Mordechai Anielewicz joined the group in 1943 using the false name "Shmuel", and helped plan an ambush against the Race not far from Lublin. The attack proved a success, earning him Friedrich's trust.[62]

Friedrich was quite arrogant, frequently reminding Anielewicz and a Polish partisan, Jerzy, that he'd hunted partisans in the past.[63]

Friedrich, Jerzy and Anielewicz were captured by a Race patrol[64] and taken to a POW camp in Piotrków.[65] They remained here until a German bombardment provided them enough cover for Friedrich and Anielewicz to escape for Lodz.[66]

While walking through Lodz, Friedrich was recognized by a Jew who identified himself as Pinchas Silberman. Silberman told Anielewicz that Friedrich had been part of platoon of police who'd rounded up the Jews in Lipno, marched them into the woods, and shot them. Silberman lost his entire family, and survived only by luck. Friedrich admitted it was probably true, arguing that he'd been under orders. When Anielewicz proposed that Friedrich be placed on trial, Friedrich struck him in the belly and ran briefly until Silberman yelled out "Nazi murderer!". Friedrich was stopped by armed Jews who shot him dead.[67]

FritzEdit

(StB)

Fritz was one of two ammunition haulers who provided Heinrich Jäger and his crew with armor-piercing aluminum discarding sabot just prior to a 1944 attack on Lodz.[68]

Stefan FuchsEdit

(ItB)

Stefan Fuchs (d. 1942) was the loader in Heinrich Jäger's tank at the outset of the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He was trapped in the tank when it was hit during a battle with the Race, and was most likely burned alive.[69]

Yoshi FukuokaEdit

(TtB)

Yoshi Fukuoka was a leftover Japanese soldier from World War II, stuck in China after the Lizards came. Against all odds, he and a few other Japanese joined a partisan band consisting mainly of Chinese Communists. He found an unlikely bond with Bobby Fiore, the group's lone American member (whom he first mistook for one of Jimmy Doolittle's pilots), over their shared love of beisoboru.[70]

Ivan FyodorovEdit

(StB)

Ivan Vasilievich Fyodorov was a Soviet citizen who'd been sent to the gulag at Petrozavodsk. He met David Nussboym on the train ride to the gulag, and was completely astounded by how Nussboym came to be in the Soviet Union.[71] The two became friendly for a time, being assigned to the same work gang.[72] Their connection ended when Nussboym became an interpreter for the Race POWs in the gulag.[73] Not much later, the camp commander, Colonel Gleb Skriabin, threatened Nussboym into falsely denouncing Fyodorov.[74]

Literary commentEdit

Fyodorov's final fate is unrevealed.

GeorgeEdit

(UtB)

George was a farmer in Hanford, Washington. He went to Dr. Marjorie Henry after he cut his hand. His visit overlapped with Jens Larssen's. George hoped that Dr. Henry still had tetanus vaccine.[75]

GiordanoEdit

(StB)

Giordano was a soldier in Lt. Mutt Daniels' platoon in 1944. When a sergeant took Daniels on a tour of the remains of Chicago, he thoughtlessly described the North Side the bad part of town because that was where all the "dagos" lived until the Race had overrun the city. The sergeant further suggested that the Race had done something "decent" by driving the residents of the North Side out. Daniels, remembering Giordano was of Italian heritage, told the sergeant to stop talking about the "dagos."[76]

Saul GoldfarbEdit

(Itb)

Saul Goldfarb was David Goldfarb's father. Saul and his wife had fled Poland prior to World War II. He had urged his family to do the same in 1938, but no one else did.[77]

Igor GorbunovEdit

(ItB)

Igor Vadimovich Gorbunov (b. 1920s) was Ludmila Gorbunova's younger brother. After the arrival of the Lizards, Igor managed to have a three-sentence note mailed to Ludmila to confirm he was still alive.[78]

Gordon (Fiat captive)Edit

(ItB)

Gordon was a human prisoner of the Race held in Fiat, Indiana. Jens Larssen encountered Gordon among other people when he was briefly detained in Fiat in 1942. Gordon had a red beard, and was a genius at poker and bridge, vastly preferring poker.[79]

GrabowskiEdit

(StB)

Grabowski was a corporal in the United States Army during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He was stationed in Hot Springs, Arkansas in 1944. He played position of first baseman during a pick-up baseball game with a number of players, including Sam Yeager. He complimented Yeager on his playing.[80]

Solomon GruverEdit

(UtB-StB)

Solomon Gruver (d. 1944) was a firefighter from Lodz, Poland, and an active member of the resistance. Together with Mordechai Anielewicz and Bertha Fleishman, Gruver discovered and disarmed the detonator for an explosive-metal bomb, hidden in an empty grave in a Lodz cemetery. Not long after this, Gruver was killed when SS terrorists blew up the fire station.

GusEdit

Max HagermanEdit

(UtB)

Max Hagerman was a cavalry officer with the United States Army during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He was under Rance Auerbach's command. In 1942, Calhoun participated on the attack on Lizard-held Lydia, Kansas. Hagerman and Jack Calhoun were assigned to carry a Lizard POW to Lamar, Colorado.[81]

Doc HanrahanEdit

(TtB)

Doc Hanrahan (d. 1942 or 1943) operated a private medical practice with Nurse Lucille Potter in Mount Pulaski, Illinois, before the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. During a nearby battle, a stray bomb - whether American or Lizard was unknown and immaterial - killed him painlessly as he was walking out his front door.[82]

Hanrahan (soldier)Edit

HawkinsEdit

(StB)

Hawkins was a lieutenant in Hot Springs, who escorted Sam Yeager to a meeting with General William Donovan.[83]

HenryEdit

Marjorie HenryEdit

HexhamEdit

(TtB-UtB)

Colonel Hexham (d. January 1944) was the United States Army officer assigned to supervise Dr. Jens Larssen when the physicist came westward to join the rest of the Manhattan Project.

Chester HicksEdit

HiguchiEdit

Fred HippleEdit

(TtB-StB)

Fred Hipple was a Group Captain in the Royal Air Force, stationed at Bruntingthorpe, during the Second World War and the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. Basil Roundbush, Julian Peary, Maurice Kennan, Ralph Wiggs, and David Goldfarb served under him. During the Race Invasion of the United Kingdom in 1943, Goldfarb and Roundbush believed Hipple to have been killed in the attack on the base, but Hipple sent word to them a year later that he was working with Lizard POWs to adapt the Race's technology to everyday British use.

Ho MaEdit

Maximilian HöckerEdit

(ItB)

Maximilian Höcker was a lieutenant colonel in the German army, stationed in Paris. He offered terms of release for British flyers George Bagnall and his crew when they were shot down over German territory. As Germany and the U.K. were still officially at war at this point, Höcker offered a parole, including signed statements that they would not fly against Germany ever again. If they had refused, Höcker would have ordered them into prison camps. Höcker had recently lost a sister and two nieces in the Race's explosive-metal bombing of Berlin, and for this reason was quite amenable to the possibility of Britain and Germany fighting together against the Race.[84]

Leo HortonEdit

Hou YiEdit

HowardEdit

IgnacyEdit

(StB)

Ignacy was a Polish piano teacher who became a partisan against the Germans during World War II and alongside the Germans during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. In 1944, he helped guide Ludmila Gorbunova through Poland to join up with Heinrich Jäger's forces. Gorbunova's first impression of Ignacy was negative, as he seemed too fat to be a guerrilla fighter, and his name sounded too much like Nazi.[85]

IrmaEdit

IsaacEdit

JacobsEdit

JacquesEdit

Johann JägerEdit

(ItB)

Johann Jäger was an engineer for the Henschel company. His letters to his brother Heinrich, a tank commander on the Eastern Front, were necessarily censored, but the brothers had worked out a way of writing in hidden meanings that the censors would not notice.[86]

JerzyEdit

(UtB)

Jerzy was the name of a Polish soldier who joined a partisan band in after the Race invaded Earth in 1942. He was the point man of the group. Mordechai Anielewicz joined the group in 1943 using the false name "Shmuel", and helped plan an ambush against the Race not far from Lublin.  The attack proved a success, earning him the group's trust.[87]

Jerzy and Anielewicz along with Friedrich were captured by a Race patrol[88] and taken to a POW camp in Piotrków.[89] Jerzy was injured during their capture.[90] They remained there until a German bombardment provided them enough cover for Friedrich and Anielewicz to escape for Lodz.[91]

JimmyEdit

(UtB)

Jimmy was a medic in Illinois during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He worked with colored physician whom he called "Doc". Jimmy helped Doc treat the wound Mutt Daniels received to his buttock.[92]

JoachimEdit

(StB)

Joachim was one of two ammunition haulers who provided Heinrich Jäger and his crew with armor-piercing aluminum discarding sabot just prior to a 1944 attack on Lodz.[93]

Constantine JordanEdit

JoséEdit

Max KaganEdit

(StB)

Maksim Lazarovich "Max" Kagan (b. c. 1913) was an American physicist of Russian-Jewish background, sent to assist the Soviet Union’s struggling atomic bomb project at Kolkhoz 118 in 1944.[94] Kagan aided Igor Kurchatov and the other Soviet scientists immeasurably, enabling the Soviet Union to join the ranks of humanity’s nuclear powers in time for the final peace settlement. However, Kagan was highly critical not only of the Soviet facility’s backwardness, but also of the menacing oversight from Stalin and the NKVD[95] and the use of political prisoners to extract plutonium.[96] Kurchatov enjoyed translating Kagan’s criticism to Vyacheslav Molotov, who privately wondered whether the sardonic physicist should have some difficulties in returning home.[97]

KapellmeisterEdit

(StB)

Major Kapellmeister was a German officer stationed at the port of Kristiansand, Norway, in 1944. He inspected the credentials of George Bagnall, Ken Embry, and Jerome Jones, to approve their repatriation to England after the Peace of Cairo. Despite his name, Kapellmeister's voice was not at all musical.[98]

Isaac and Leah KaplanEdit

Isaac and Leah Kaplan were German Jews who managed to escape to England in 1937, with their 14-year-old daughter Naomi. In 1944, they were pleased when their daughter became attached to David Goldfarb, a clever radio operator with an honorable war record.[99]

KarolEdit

(StB)

Karol was a farmer north of Lodz. He was part of Mordechai Anielewicz' network of informants looking out for Nazi attempts on Lodz. Heinrich Jäger found Karol tortured and murdered, with his wife and two daughters dead beside him. SS insignias were branded onto Karol's body.[100] Jäger suspected that Otto Skorzeny was the perpetrator.[101]

Feofan KarpovEdit

(ItB)

Feofan Karpov was a colonel in the Red Air Force. He informed Ludmila Gorbunova that she would transport Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov in her small plane to Germany for diplomatic talks during the war with the Race.[102]

Yevdokia KasherinaEdit

(ItB)

Yevdokia Gavrilovna Kasherina[103] was a pilot in the Red Air Force and a colleague of Ludmila Gorbunova. She informed Gorbunova about a letter that German soldier Heinrich Jäger had sent to Gorbunova.[104]

Maurice KennanEdit

(StB-UtB)

Flight Lieutenat Maurice Kennan was a member of Fred Hipple's RAF wing at Bruntingthorpe.

Jakub KipnisEdit

Sid KleinEdit

(TtB)

Sid Klein (b. c. 1915) was promoted from Lieutenant to Captain of the company which included Mutt Daniels, after Captain Maczek was severely wounded. He called his lieutenants together to delineate the planned entry into Chicago.[105]

Roman KlopotowskiEdit

Zofia KlopotowskiEdit

Lieutenant Colonel KobayashiEdit

(Itb)

Kobayashi was a Japanese lieutenant colonel who interrogated Teerts about radar technology. Kobayashi wanted Teerts to build a radar for Japan. Teerts, a mere pilot, didn't know how to build a radar. Kobayashi believed Teerts, and then wondered why he should be kept alive. He and his superior Colonel Doi began an animated discussion as to what should be done with Teerts, which was interrupted by a Race bombing raid. After the raid, Doi's argument prevailed and Teerts was spared.[106]

KobeskiEdit

(ItB)

Kobeski played for the Madison Blues Triple-I league baseball team in 1942, just prior to the Race's invasion of Earth. Joe Sullivan, the pitcher for the Decatur Commodores, struck him out, much to Kobeski's disgust.[107]

KovacsEdit

(ItB)

Kovacs was the pitcher for the Madison Blues Triple-I league baseball team in 1942, just prior to the Race Invasion of Tosev 3.[108]

Viktor KraminovEdit

(ItB)

Viktor Danielovich Kraminov was a lieutenant colonel in the Soviet Red Army. After being transferred from Marshal Semyon Budyonny's army in the south to staff duty in Moscow, he was assigned to escort Heinrich Jäger and Georg Schultz, members of a German team led by Otto Skorzeny. Kraminov and Boris Lidov proposed a joint Soviet-German operation to attack a Race convoy. The Soviets and the Germans were able to secure samples of plutonium during this attack, which benefitted their countries' respective explosive-metal bomb programs.[109]

KurowskiEdit

Edward LaneEdit

(ItB)

Edward "Ted" Lane was the radioman in George Bagnall's bomber crew in 1942.[110] He was part of several missions against the Race early in the war.[111]

Freddie LaplaceEdit

(TtB)

Freddie Laplace was a soldier in Mutt Daniels' unit. As his father ran a butcher shop in Bangor, Maine, Freddie was well equipped to analyze a Lizard skeleton which Nurse Lucille Potter had made an object of study.[112] Freddie was badly wounded in the leg near Danforth, Illinois, and it was not clear whether the limb could be saved.[113]

Olaf LarssenEdit

(ItB)

Olaf Larssen, a Minnesota farmer[114], was the father of Jens Larssen. Jens fondly remembered Olaf whacking him with birch twigs as part of the sauna ritual.[115] Olaf and his wife (Jens' mother) were still alive at the start of the Race Invasion of Tosev 3, but Jens lost track of them in the resultant chaos.

LeahEdit

(ItB)

Leah was a Jewish fighter living in Warsaw, Poland. She and a boy named David acted as decoys for Rivka and Reuven Russie, respectively, thus allowing the mother and her son to escape from the Race when Moishe Russie refused to broadcast propaganda for the Race. The religiously conservative Russie felt guilty for having to hold the hand of a woman that wasn't his wife.[116]

LejbEdit

(ItB)

"Lejb" (probably an alias) was a Polish Jew in Hrubieszów. He allowed Heinrich Jäger to use his home when Jäger was smuggling plutonium back into Germany. He was present when Mordechai Anielewicz took part of the plutonium from Jäger.[117]

LeonEdit

(TtB)

"Leon" (probably an alias) was a Jewish freedom fighter in Lodz, Poland. He was David Goldfarb's initial contact when Goldfarb arrived in Lodz to help rescue his cousin, Moishe Russie in 1943.[118]

Boris LidovEdit

(ItB-StB)

Boris Lidov (d. 1944) was a lieutenant colonel in the Soviet NKVD. He and Viktor Kraminov proposed a joint Soviet-German attack on a Race convoy to Otto Skorzeny, Heinrich Jäger, and Georg Schultz.[119]

Skorzeny affectionately called Lidov an "old prune-faced bastard".[120]

Lidov continued his service throughout the war with the Race. He interrogated pilot Ludmila Gorbunova about her relationship with Jäger (which was only just then becoming intimate) and Schultz (who was part of her ground crew) in 1943.[121] Later that year, Lidov assigned Gorbunova and Schultz to provide relief to German-Soviet forces in Pskov.[122] In 1944, Lidov interrogated the mutinous Lizard named Ussmak.[123] During such an interrogation, Lidov tempted Ussmak with ginger. Lidov's translator, a male named Gazzim, saw an opportunity to attack Lidov. Ussmak joined him, keeping Lidov from reaching his gun while Gazzim sank his teeth into Lidov's throat, killing Lidov.[124] Gazzim was killed and Ussmak re-captured in short order.

LoEdit

(TtB)

Lo (d. 1943) was a member of the Chinese Communist Party. He was briefly interned in one of the Race's prison camps in China. Here he met fellow prisoner Bobby Fiore, a former baseball pitcher. After Fiore innocently showed Lo how to pitch better, Lo and other members of the CCP pressed Fiore into escaping the camp and attacking a Race outpost, with Fiore acting as a grenadier. Lo died during the attack, but it was otherwise a success.[125]

LoganEdit

(StB)

Logan was a radio man in Mutt Daniels' unit. In 1944, he received word that a general armistice had been reached between the Big Five and the Race.[126]

MaczekEdit

(TtB)

Captain Maczek (b. c. 1915) was Sgt. Mutt Daniels' superior officer in Illinois. He approved the deputizing of Nurse Lucille Potter into their company.[127] Outside, of Danforth, Maczek was wounded in the chest and put out of the fighting,[128] after which Sid Klein took over the company.[129]

Bill MagruderEdit

(UtB-StB)

Lieutenant Bill Magruder, a Virginian, was the second in command of Rance Auerbach's cavalry company in Kansas. He shared Auerbach's fondness for "States' War" trivia.[130] Magruder was at Auerbach's side during the defeat of traitor Joe Selig,[131] the liberation of Lakin[132], a skirmish near Cheyenne Wells[133], and the manhunt for the fugitive Jens Larssen.[134]

MarchenkoEdit

MarieEdit

(ItB)

Marie was a prisoner of the Race in Fiat, Indiana. Jens Larssen encountered her and other prisoners when he was briefly detained in Fiat in 1942. She had gray hair, and made jokes about the Lizards' resemblance to gingerbread men.[135]

Donald MatherEdit

Panagiotis MavrogordatoEdit

(UtB-StB)

Panagiotis Mavrogordato was a Greek sailor and smuggler who captained the Naxos. He transported Moishe, Rivka, and Reuven Russie from Gibraltar to Palestine in his vessel. Moishe and Mavrogordato discovered that German was their only language in common. However, Reuven, who had played with the Greek Stephanopoulos twins in London, was able to follow Mavrogordato's off-color "sailor talk," much to his father's chagrin.[136] Mavrogordato witnessed the nuclear destruction of Rome, where he had intended to put to port and sell ginger to soldiers of the Race occupying the city.[137] Eventually, he unloaded the Russies in Haifa.[138]

MaxEdit

(Itb)

Max was a Jewish fighter in Russia. He had survived the German massacre of Jews at Baba Yar. Max was one of the participants in the joint Soviet-German mission against the Race to obtain a sample of plutonium. Foul-mouthed and tough, Max revealed the truth about Baba Yar to a somewhat disbelieving Heinrich Jäger.[139]

MaxiEdit

(StB)

Maxi was the SS agent who arrested Heinrich Jäger for treason against the Third Reich, after Jäger sabotaged Otto Skorzeny's attempt to detonate an explosive-metal bomb in Lodz.[140]

MaxwellEdit

McBrideEdit

Karl MehlerEdit

Klaus MeineckeEdit

(TtB, UtB)

Sergeant Klaus Meinecke was a German panzer gunner.[141] When the Race invaded in mid-1942, Meinecke was serving in the Afrika Korps against the British. Withdrawn with the rest of the Korps, Meinecke was assigned to Colonel Heinrich Jäger's Panther in 1943 during the fighting in Alsace-Lorraine. Shortly before one attack, Meinecke joked that his regimental commander had the deutsche Blick ('German glance') due to Jäger's constant scanning for Race killercraft, then explained how first the British and then the Lizards had dominated the skies in North Africa.[142] During a subsequent diversionary attack when Otto Skorzeny was stealing a Lizard landcruiser, Meinecke managed a rare feat by destroying a Race infantry fighting vehicle with a well-placed round from his Panther's gun.[143]

MendelEdit

MieczyslawEdit

(StB)

Mieczyslaw was a farmer near Lodz who was part of Mordechai Anielewicz' intelligence network. In 1944, Mieczyslaw informed Anielewicz of Otto Skorzeny's plan to smuggle an explosive-metal bomb into Lodz.[144]

Anton MikahilovEdit

MoriEdit

(StB)

Major Mori was a Japanese soldier who'd managed to hold a sliver of territory in China near Peking, despite the arrival of the Race in 1942. He reluctantly worked alongside Nieh Ho-Ting's unit of the People's Liberation Army throughout 1944. Mori retained the same arrogance the Japanese had shown during their war against China prior to the invasion. Although allies by circumstances, Mori was unwilling to share his supplies and weapons with Nieh or anyone unless there was something in return.[145] After the Peace of Cairo, with Japan no longer at war with the Race, Mori refused to supply Nieh's group with further weapons. Nieh concluded that Mori and his pocket would need to be eliminated soon.[146]

Sergei MorozkinEdit

(TtB)

Sergei Leonidovich Morozkin was a soldier in the Red Army at Pskov. He served as an interpreter for the English liaisons in Pskov.[147]

Herman MuldoonEdit

(UtB-StB)

Herman Muldoon[148] (b. c. 1889) was an American veteran of World War I who enlisted to defend the heartland against the Lizards during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. In the final stages of the Battle of Chicago, Muldoon was a Sergeant in Lieutenant Mutt Daniels' company. Daniels and Muldoon witnessed the detonation of the Fat Lady from the shelter of the Frances Willard House, where they had been irreverently discussing the oddities of the WCTU.

NakayamaEdit

NigelEdit

Morton NordenskoldEdit

NormaEdit

Major OkamotoEdit

(Itb-UtB)

Okamoto (d. 1943) was a major in the Japanese army.[149] On behalf of a variety of important Japanese military officials and scientists, he interrogated Teerts for information regarding the Race's warfare technology and tactics and especially on the building of explosive-metal bombs, acting as an interpreter and applying physical abuse when his superiors believed Teerts was not being forthcoming.[150] He also arranged for Teerts to become addicted to ginger.[151]

While transferring Teerts to the custody of the Japanese navy, Okamoto's vehicle was knocked over by a Race air-raid on Tokyo. Okamoto was injured and knocked unconscious when the car overturned, but Teerts remained conscious and unhurt.[152] He escaped and was finally rescued by the Race, who then destroyed Tokyo (and presumably Okamoto, if he had not already died of his wounds) with an explosive-metal bomb.[153]

George OlsonEdit

(TtB)

George Olson was the son of Thorkil and Louise. He and his wife had been working in a defense plant in Kansas City, and had not been heard from since the Lizards seized that town.[154]

Louise OlsonEdit

(TtB)

Louise Olson (b. c. 1895) was a resident of New Salem, North Dakota who offered hospitality to Sam Yeager and Barbara Larssen.[155]

Thorkil OlsonEdit

(TtB)

Thorkil Olson was a resident of New Salem, North Dakota who offered hospitality to Sam Yeager and Barbara Larssen. He claimed to be one-eighth Sioux. Olson pointed Yeager to the local jail to store Lizard POWs Ulhass and Ristin.[156]

Red O’NeillEdit

Andy OsborneEdit

OscarEdit

(TtB, UtB)

Oscar (d. January 1944) was a soldier in the United States Army during the war against the Race's Conquest Fleet. He was attached to the atomic bomb project at the University of Denver and was assigned to guard Jens Larssen. His name was not in fact "Oscar", but Larssen called him that, and the soldier answered to it.[157] Ostensibly his duties were to protect Larssen, but in reality Oscar treated his charge like a prisoner at the orders of Colonel Hexham.[158] He earned Larssen's animosity when Larssen put his hands on his ex-wife, Barbara, and Oscar intervened.[159]

Oscar was briefly reassigned when Larssen traveled to Washington state,[160] but became Larssen's guard again upon the physicist's return.[161] However, Larssen finally reached a breaking point when, after being relieved of his duties by General Leslie Groves, he was accosted by Colonel Hexham, who believed Larssen was trying to malinger. The embittered Larssen killed both Oscar and Hexham by shooting them in the head.[162]

Yuri PalchinskyEdit

(StB - POV in one scene)

Yuri Andreyevich Palchinsky was the Soviet guard of a work gang who discovered Ussmak's corpse after tripping over it. He took Ussmak's body and disposed of it in a mass grave.[163]

Kliment PavlyuchenkoEdit

(ItB)

Kliment Yegorevich Pavlyuchenko was the headman of a collective farm in the Ukraine. In 1942, after the Race invaded Earth, Pavlyuchenko gave temporary shelter to Heinrich Jäger and Georg Schultz, who'd survived their first battle with the Race not long before, even managing to destroy a Race landcruiser. They were picked up by Soviet pilot Ludmila Gorbunova, who was anxious to know how they'd killed a landcruiser.[164]

Julian PearyEdit

(StB-UtB)

Wing Commander Julian Peary was a member of Fred Hipple's RAF wing at Bruntingthorpe.

PeteEdit

Richard PetersonEdit

(StB)

Richard Peterson was a technician with the USA's atomic bomb project in Denver in 1944. Leslie Groves considered Peterson a "hopeless stick-in-the-mud". He was of the opinion that Groves' scheme for increasing plutonium production while containing radioactive waste would be incredibly difficult given the lack of personnel. Groves reminded Peterson that should any radioactive waste find its way into the South Platte River, the Race would most likely detect it, and conclude that Denver was the center of US atomic production and destroy the city. Groves ordered Peterson to train people to implement the containment, and then pointedly ignored Peterson until he left Groves' office.[165]

Marko PetrovicEdit

(TtB)

Marko Petrovic was a grizzled Croatian captain with scars on his face and a thick black beard.[166] He assisted Heinrich Jäger and Otto Skorzeny in their action against Drefsab and the Race in the town of Split.[167] Jaeger though Petrovic seemed more like a bandit chief than a proper soldier.

PinelliEdit

Yelena PopovaEdit

(ItB)

Yelena Popova was a major in the Red Air Force, and Ludmila Gorbunova's superior officer. She debriefed Gorbunova about her observations of the Race's positions early on in the Race Invasion of Tosev 3.[168]

PorlockEdit

(UtB)

Porlock was a U.S. Army supplies officer in Minneapolis. In 1943, it was his unpleasant task to explain by telephone to a frustrated General Leslie Groves, why the Race's blockade had made it difficult to send supplies to Colorado. Groves chewed him out angrily and made him understand that this was a top-priority matter while not mentioning specifics, and made it clear that the supplies would have to be sent by rail, not wagon as Porlock intended.

Privately, Groves thought it was funny that the name Porlock resembled Morlock, the boogeymen of the novel of The Time Machine.[169]

ProctorEdit

(StB)

Miss Proctor was a high school home economics teacher in Lakin, Kansas. During the Race Invasion of Tosev 3, she was convinced that the Race were "the wave of the future" and became an active collaborator.[170]

PurdyEdit

(UtB)

Mr. Purdy (b. c. 1879) was a lecherous resident of Lamar, Colorado. When he peeked at his lodger Penny Summers while she was undressing, she told him she would have her boyfriend Captain Rance Auerbach whale the stuffing out of him, and also tell Mrs. Purdy. When she told Captain Auerbach about this, he was pleased that she made herself out to be his girlfriend.[171]

Stepan RadzutakEdit

(StB)

Stepan Radzutak[172] was one of the gang bosses in a Soviet gulag in Siberia during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. His way of persuading the prisoners in his gang was to tell them that if their work quota wasn't met, then they wouldn't eat.

David Nussboym served in Radzutak's gang in 1944.[173]

RasmussenEdit

(StB)

Rasmussen was a platoon leader in the Battle of Chicago. During the closing stages of mop-up, Rasmussen remarked that it was absurd that the Race, whose members were no taller than a human 10-year-old, could make such trouble for humanity as a whole. In response to a rhetorical question from Lt. Mutt Daniels, he concluded that the only way to deal with the Race in Chicago was to kill them all. Daniels replied that the Race were more likely to kill all humans instead, and hoped an alternative resolution could be found.[174]

Andy ReillyEdit

(ItB)

Andy Reilly was a janitor at the University of Chicago. Sam Yeager and Barbara Larssen considered him very trustworthy.[175]

Ernst RieckeEdit

(ItB)

Captain Ernst Riecke (d. 1942) was Major Heinrich Jäger's second-in-command in the Sixteenth Panzer Division in 1942.[176] The division was serving on the Eastern Front[177] when the Race invaded Earth. While he survived one of the initial attacks the Race made on the Division[178], he was subsequently killed in a battle that effectively wiped out the entire division.[179]

Buck RisbergEdit

(ItB)

Buck Risberg was an American soldier during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He saw action with Mutt Daniels in the street fighting that took place around Aurora, Illinois.[180]

Rita (madam)Edit

(StB)

Rita was a madam in Elgin, Illinois. A tough, gun-toting woman, she was a notorious skinflint, shaking down her girls (including Suzie) for a disproportionate part of their earnings. Despite her infamously cold exterior, Rita exhibited a heartfelt emotional outburst when learning of the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[181]

RodneyEdit

(ItB)

Rodney was a human prisoner of the Race held in Fiat, Indiana. Jens Larssen encountered Rodney among other people when he was briefly detained in Fiat in 1942.[182]

Charlie RuddockEdit

(StB)

Charlie Ruddock was first catcher for the Gems of Quincy, Illinois in May 1907, until he broke his thumb. Second catcher Mutt Daniels took his place.[183]

SalEdit

(ItB)

Sal was a human prisoner of the Race held in Fiat, Indiana. Jens Larssen encountered Sal when he was briefly detained in Fiat in 1942. Sal was a bleach-blonde.[184]

Charlie SandersEdit

(ItB)

Charlie Sanders was a black man in Naperville, Illinois. During a battle between the U.S. Army and the Race in 1942, Sanders brought food, including chicken, to U.S. soldiers, including Mutt Daniels and Kevin Donlan, braving Race artillery fire. Both Daniels and Donlan were complimentary of Sanders' bravery, but were casually racist in their interaction with Sanders. Donlan gave Sanders the nickname of Colonel. While angered, Sanders still gave them food and then moved on to the next fox hole.[185]

SaulEdit

(StB)

Saul was a Jewish partisan near Lodz, Poland. He and another partisan named Chaim took possession of the explosive-metal bomb Mordechai Anielewicz captured from Otto Skorzeny in 1944. They agreed to hide it somewhere as a trump card against their enemies.[186]

Emilia SawatskiEdit

(TtB)

Emilia Sawatski was the wife of farmer Wladyslaw Sawatski. She refused Anielewicz' offer of turnips in payment for his lodging, saying that she already had plenty, and he would need them on his journey.[187]

Ewa SawatskiEdit

(TtB)

Ewa Sawatski (b. late 1920s) was the younger daughter of Wladyslaw and Emilia Sawatski. When she offered Mordechai Anielewicz butter for his potatoes, he momentarily blanched, but then remembered that he was already eating pork to conceal his Jewishness, so one more violation of dietary custom would not matter.[188]

Jozef SawatskiEdit

(TtB)

Jozef Sawatski (b. mid-1920s) was the son of Wladyslaw Sawatski and Emilia Sawatski, who lodged Mordechai Anielewicz one night.[189]

Maria SawatskiEdit

(TtB)

Maria Sawatski (b. c. 1924) was the older daughter of Wladyslaw and Emilia Sawatski. She expressed a desire to bed Mordechai Anielewicz, which he feared as it would reveal his Jewishness.[190]

Wladyslaw SawatskiEdit

(TtB)

Wladyslaw Sawatski was a Polish farmer who for one night sheltered Mordechai Anielewicz, who was a fugitive from the Race. Anielewicz used the name Janusz Borwicz, fearing the typical Pole's distrust of Jews. Despite all precautions, Sawatski was aware of Anielewicz' true nature, due to the latter's inept attempts to make the sign of the Cross, and other subtleties. He did not make distinctions between people in need, and gave Anielewicz advice on how to better conceal himself.[191]

Dieter SchmidtEdit

(ItB)

Dieter Schmidt (d. 1942) was the driver of Major Heinrich Jäger's panzer.[192] While he survived the first encounter the Sixteenth Panzer Division had with the Race in Ukraine[193], and was even able to escape when the panzer was destroyed in a subsequent battle,[194] Schmidt died not long after.[195]

Sergeant SchneiderEdit

(ItB)

Sergeant Schneider (d. 1942) was a soldier in the United States Army during the Race's invasion of Earth in 1942. He initially acted as a recruiter in Ashton, Illinois, assigning new volunteers Sam Yeager and Mutt Daniels to the units that could use them best.[196]

Schneider participated in the fierce fighting that took place in Illinois.[197] He was killed during an artillery barrage in Aurora, leaving Mutt Daniels the senior non-com.[198]

Gerald SebringEdit

(ItB)

Gerald Sebring (d. 1942?) was an American physicist from Berkeley, California. He worked with the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago. He had intended to return to Berkeley in the summer of 1942 to conduct research and marry a colleague's secretary; his plans were preempted when the arrival of the Race's Conquest Fleet made travel all but impossible. Sebring instead volunteered to travel to Washington, DC to meet with government officials and remind them that defending Chicago long enough for the physicists to continue their research was all-important.[199] Unfortunately, no one in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, where the War Department had relocated after the destruction of Washington by one of the Race's explosive-metal bombs, had seen or heard from him. It was assumed the train on which he'd been traveling had been destroyed and he'd been killed.[200]

Joe SeligEdit

(UtB)

Joe Selig (d. 1943) was a farmer in western Kansas who collaborated with the Race during their invasion, until his farm was burned, with him in it, by Rance Auerbach's U.S. Army detachment.[201]

SerovEdit

(StB)

Colonel Serov of the NKVD was one of Vyacheslav Molotov's aides at the Peace of Cairo. Serov could speak the Race's language and reported that the Lizards continually talked about how fine the weather was. Serov himself, not thus acclimated, collapsed of heatstroke, and required hospitalization.[202]

Hiram SharpEdit

(TtB)

Hiram Sharp was the medical doctor in Ogden, Utah, who diagnosed Jens Larssen's gonorrhea. As the Race Invasion of Tosev 3 had disrupted supply shipments, Dr. Sharp had no medicine to treat the problem, and thus did not charge Larssen for the visit.[203]

ShmuelEdit

SholomEdit

(StB)

Sholom was a Jewish partisan part of an anti-Lizard cell near Hrubieszów. In 1944, he acted as a translator between fellow partisan Witold and Soviet pilot Ludmila Gorbunova. When Witold claimed he could fix Gorbunova's plane, he quickly demonstrated he didn't have any knowledge, a fact Sholom confirmed for Gorbunova. When Witold seemed to threaten Sholom, Sholom reminded him that Jews were not so helpless anymore. Witold retreated.[204]

When Gorbonova suggested Witold might now sell the group out the Race, Sholom assured her that the threat of death would keep Witold in line. He needled her about the fact that this was much the situation in the USSR, and expressed utter contempt for the governments of Poland and Germany. When she wondered why he was with the partisans, then, and not with the Race, he acknowledged that the Race was the worst option for humanity.[205]

Nikifor SholudenkoEdit

(TtB-UtB)

Nikifor Sholudenko was a Ukrainian agent of the NKVD, sent to reconnoiter the doings of separatist partisan leader Stepan Bandera. Ludmila Gorbunova was sent to pick him up from the field and bring him to report to his superiors.[206]

ShuraEdit

Pinchas SilbermanEdit

Joe SimpkinEdit

(ItB)

Joe Simpkin was the tail gunner in George Bagnall's bomber crew. He was among the survivors when their bomber was shot down by a Lizard killercraft near Paris.[207]

Gleb SkriabinEdit

SmithersEdit

Hayward SmithsonEdit

(StB)

Dr. Hayward Smithson was a Major in the United States Army Medical Corps. In 1944, when the Race Invasion of Tosev 3 reached a ceasefire, he arrived in the POW hospital where Captain Rance Auerbach was in the Race's custody, to render medical aid.[208]

SmittyEdit

(ItB)

Smitty (d. 1942) was an American soldier of the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. During fighting against the Race in Aurora, Illinois, the wounded Smitty lay paralyzed in the path of approaching flames. His noncom Mutt Daniels pulled Smitty away and bandaged his wounds, while a chivalrous Lizard recognized a truce and refused to shoot either human as long as this process continued. Daniels carried Smitty to safety, but Smitty quickly succumbed to his wounds.[209]

Tadeusz SobieskiEdit

Michael SpiegelEdit

(ItB)

Michael Spiegel was a lieutenant colonel in the German army. He commanded the garrison in Satu Mare, Romania which, by 1943, was the northernmost town Germany still controlled after the Race's Conquest Fleet had advanced into the country in 1942.

Mordechai Anielewicz notified Spiegel that the Race intended to attack the Romanian town of Ploesti in an effort to cut off Germany's oil supply. The Germans were able to thwart the attack.

Spiegel had a pretty good idea of Anielewicz's ethnicity. He interrupted himself when he was going to sign off their phone call with "Heil Hitler."[210]

Ssu Shun-Ch’inEdit

Fred StangegateEdit

Roger StansfieldEdit

(ItB; UtB)

Commander Roger Stansfield was an officer in the Royal Navy. He was the CO of the submarine HMS Seanymph. In 1942, the Seanymph carried a sample of plutonium to Boston, and delivered it to American general Leslie Groves[211] The two men socialized briefly before Groves took the sample and headed for Denver.[212]

In 1944, Stansfield was still in command of the Seanymph, and transported Moishe, Rivka, and Reuven Russie from London to Gibraltar.[213]

StefaniaEdit

(StB)

Stefania (b. c. 1927) was a member of a Polish partisan band near Hrubieszów. In 1944, the band was joined by Soviet Air Force Lt. Ludmila Gorbunova. Stefania asked how many men did Gorbunova have to screw in order to be allowed to fly a Polikarpov U-2, to which Gorbunova replied that she didn't have to screw anybody, although plenty of men tried to screw her. Stefania declared that this must be lies, and Gorbunova concluded that the girl must be irredeemably stupid.[214]

Stephanopoulos twinsEdit

(TtB-UtB)

Constantine and Demetrios Stephanopoulos were twin boys from Greece, whose family had taken refuge in London during World War II. During the Race Invasion of Tosev 3, the Russie family moved into their neighborhood. Young Reuven Russie enjoyed playing with the twins. Reuven learned some Greek from them, and they learned some Yiddish from him.

Addie StrasheimEdit

(StB)

Addie Strasheim (b. c. 1889) was a girl from Quincy, Illinois when Mutt Daniels played for the Quincy Gems in 1907. Mutt and Addie's romance might have bloomed, had he not had a job offer from Washington State. When Mutt returned to Quincy as a Lieutenant in 1944, Sgt. Herman Muldoon suggested that he get in touch with Addie if she still lived. Mutt refused, saying that both would have changed, and he would prefer to keep the unsullied memory of their youth.[215]

Joe SullivanEdit

(ItB)

Joe Sullivan (b. 1925) was the pitcher for the Decatur Commodores when the Race attacked the United States.[216] Sullivan was 17-years-old at the beginning of the invasion, and showed tremendous talent. Unfortunately, he dislocated his shoulder when a Race helicopter attacked the train the team was on.[217]

Wendell SummersEdit

(UtB)

Wendell Summers was a resident of Lakin, Kansas when the Race invaded in 1942. He and his daughter, Penny were able to join a U.S. Army cavalry unit under the command of Rance Auerbach and escape Lakin in 1943. Wendell did not get far before he was killed by a Killercraft's strafing run. [218]

Joshua SumnerEdit

(TtB)

Joshua "Hoot" Sumner, whose defining trait was his pear-like shape, was justice of the peace, sheriff, and postmaster of Chugwater, Wyoming. In the first capacity, he performed the wedding of Sam and Barbara Yeager when their caravan passed through the town in 1943.[219] A few weeks later, Colonel Leslie Groves' contingent, on the first caravan's trail, learned of the wedding and the presence of an Italian scientist and two Lizard POWs among the caravan. When Sumner became inquisitive about all this out-of-town activity, Groves politely deflected any question which might lead to a sensitive discussion about the Manhattan Project, but still worried that he had said too much.[220]

Old SunEdit

(ItB)

Old Sun was a tailor in Liu Han's village during World War II. He informed Liu Han that a Japanese bombing raid had destroyed the home of the county head, Tang Wen Lan, and almost certainly killed him. Old Sun sanguinely announced he would be putting on white to "mourn" the despised county head. However, when the village apothecary Yi Min announced that Japanese ground forces would be attacking the village, Old Sun refused to leave his plot.[221]

SuzieEdit

(StB)

Suzie (b. c. 1914) was a prostitute from Elgin, Illinois who serviced Lt. Mutt Daniels in 1944. Shortly after their transaction was completed, they learned, from Suzie's boss Rita, of the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[222]

SylviaEdit

(ItB, StB)

Sylvia was a barmaid at the White Horse Inn, in Dover, England.[223] Although both Jerome Jones and David Goldfarb pursued Sylvia and her fellow barmaid Daphne, the two women preferred RAF pilots to radar operators.[224] Sylvia had a long relationship with Douglas Bell when the Race Invasion of Tosev 3 began.[225] Goldfarb was able to date Sylvia briefly, but she turned her attention elsewhere.[226]

Sylvia continued to work at the White Horse Inn through the war and after the Peace of Cairo.[227]

Stan SzymanskiEdit

(UtB-StB)

Stan Szymanski (b. c. 1915) was the Captain to whom Lieutenant Mutt Daniels was assigned after his hospital stay.

TadeuszEdit

Tang Wen LanEdit

(ItB)

Tang Wen Lan (d. 1942) was the head of the Chinese county which included Liu Han's village. Tang and his minions were notoriously corrupt, and he was known for being especially wicked and stupid. When he was killed in a Japanese bombing raid, shortly before the Race Invasion of Tosev 3, the villagers rejoiced briefly, before realizing that the Japanese would be much crueler masters, enough to make Tang seem like a prince of generosity.[228]

TerenceEdit

(UtB)

Terence ran the general store in Couch, Missouri. In 1943 the U.S. managed to capture a Race shuttlecraft which they hid in an unused tobacco curing shed across the street from the general store. To maintain secrecy, a tunnel was dug from Terence's store to the shed. Visitors to the store would be natural so this would allay any suspicion by Race aerial reconnaissance.[229]

Pete ThomsenEdit

(ItB)

Pete Thomsen (b. c. 1915) was a reporter for the Rockford Courier-Journal when the Race's Conquest Fleet invaded Earth in 1942. He enlisted immediately, sharing a few words with Sam Yeager while waiting in line for inspection.[230]

TolyaEdit

Charlie TompkinsEdit

(ItB)

Charlie Tompkins was a mechanic in Strasburg, Ohio. On his trip back to Chicago, Jens Larssen's car broke down a mile outside of Strasburg. Larssen was direct to Thompkins, who took a look at Larssen's car. He determined that the car had a cracked block, and he couldn't repair the car. Desperate, Larssen offered to trade the car for a bicycle he spied in the garage. Initially, Tompkins refused, pointing out that he'd have the car whether or not he gave Larssen the bike. When Larssen threatened to set fire to the car, both mean realized how ugly they were getting, and Tompkins relented.[231]

Hank TompkinsEdit

(UtB)

In 1943 Major Hank Tompkins, United States Army, escorted shuttlecraft pilot Vesstil and Sgt. Sam Yeager to Couch, Missouri where Vesstil's shuttlecraft was hidden. Vesstil was to assist Dr. Robert Goddard in analyzing the shuttle components with Yeager as a translator.[232]

TsuyeEdit

Judah UssishkinEdit

Sarah UssishkinEdit

Jacob van AlenEdit

(TtB)

Jacob van Alen (b. c. 1913) was a lieutenant in the United States Coast Guard, which during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3 was subsumed into the United States Navy. He transported Colonel Leslie Groves' contingent across Lake Ontario to Canada on his ship the Forward.[233]

Hank VernonEdit

(TtB)

Hank Vernon was the ship's engineer aboard the Duluth Queen, a ship Jens Larssen rode into Minnesota on his cross-country trek to Denver in 1943.

Vernon and Larssen passed some time listening to Edward R. Murrow on the radio. While Larssen wanted to hear the news stories, Vernon insisted on commenting, often drowning out the radio.[234]

VictorEdit

VirgilEdit

(Itb)

Virgil (d. 1942) was a sailor aboard the merchant ship Caledonia. He was tasked with escorting Sam Yeager, Barbara Larssen, Ullhass and Ristin to a cabin. Before he could show them the way, a Lizard killercraft attacked the Caledonia, strafing the deck. Virgil's head and shoulder were blown to bits during the attack.[235]

Eddie WagnerEdit

(ItB)

Eddie Wagner was a private attached to General George Patton's army in Indiana in 1942. He detained Jens Larssen, and then escorted him to Patton's headquarters.[236]

Fred WaltersEdit

(ItB)

Fred Walters played a few weeks of Class D baseball in 1912, but wasn't too good at it. In 1942, Walters, now plump and gray and living in Ashton, Illinois, enlisted in a desperately short-handed United States Army, along with Sam Yeager and Mutt Daniels.[237]

Alf WhyteEdit

(ItB, TtB)

Alf Whyte (d. 1943) was a British navigator during the aborted World War II and the Race Invasion of Tosev 3.[238] He was part of George Bagnall's crew from 1942 until 1943. He survived the downing of their bomber in France in 1942; his crew made their way back to the U.K. successfully after being given parole by German Lt. Colonel Maximilian Höcker.[239]

The next year, Whyte and the rest of the crew traveled to the Soviet Union to provide radar technology to the soldiers at Pskov.[240] The whole crew wound up staying to help maintain the peace between the Soviet and German partisans that had united out of necessity.[241] Whyte was killed during a battle not far from Pskov.[242]

Ralph WiggsEdit

(UtB)

Ralph Wiggs was a RAF meteorologist at Bruntingthorpe. He had lost a leg at the Battle of the Somme, which gave him a clear perspective on life and priorities. During the Race Invasion of the United Kingdom, his artificial leg was damaged in a shooting battle.[243]

WitoldEdit

(StB)

Witold was a Polish blacksmith who volunteered to help fix Ludmila Gorbunova's plane after she crash-landed in Hrubieszów to help local partisans.

However, he had no experience or knowledge in fixing the engine of a plane. In fact, he was only trying to impress Ludmila, a fact she quickly realized when he had no idea what a crankshaft was.

When Sholom, Witold's Jewish translator, pointed out as such, Witold said something profane to him. Sholom immediately whipped out his weapon and reminded Witold that the Jews weren't as weak as before and could pay back slights.  Witold angrily withdrew.[244]

Rolf WittmanEdit

(TtB)

Rolf Wittman was a driver in Heinrich Jäger's Panther D. Young, large, and sandy-haired, Wittman often exhibited a flippant, carefree attitude.[245]

WladeslawEdit

(StB)

Wladeslaw was a Polish guerrilla during both the aborted Second World War and the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. He was part of Casmir's group near Hrubieszów, Poland. In 1944, he and a Jew named Avram escorted Soviet pilot Ludmila Gorbunova through Poland to a German position outside Warsaw so she might gain access to a plane.[246] While the way was arduous, they arrived at their destination unharmed.[247]

During the trip, which was by wagon and went through Race-occupied parts of Poland, Avram and Gorbunova discussed the precarious and fluid political situation in Poland, which was being jostled among the Race, the Soviet Union and Germany. Avram and Wladeslaw had a good laugh Gorbunova's naive dedication to Soviet ideology, and her belief that the Soviets had invaded in September 1939 for "altruistic" reasons.[248]

Louise YeagerEdit

(ItB)

Louise Yeager was married to Sam Yeager between the wars. Unable to cope with his semi-nomadic lifestyle as a baseball player in the minor leagues, she divorced him some time before World War II.[249]

YettaEdit

Yitzkhak (heckler)Edit

(ItB)

Yitzkhak was a member of "Rabbi" Moishe Russie's congregation in Warsaw during the Race Invasion of Tosev 3. When Russie urged his people to pray, Yitzkhak asked whether they should pray for the Germans who sought out Jews specifically for slaughter, or the Race who killed humans of all religions and nationalities. When Russie declared his intent to pray for the Germans as for any great sinners, Yitzkhak said he would pray for the Germans to catch cholera.[250]

Yitzkhak (partisan)Edit

(StB)

Yitzkak was an elderly Jewish partisan. In 1944, he and a Polish soldier named Boleslaw staged a fight which in turn led to a staged riot in the streets of Lodz. The riot helped stop a convoy of Lizard lorries that were supposed to be delivering supplies to a Race attack on a German position outside the town. Mordechai Anielewicz and Bertha Fleishman watched the riot. Anielewicz thought both Boleslaw and Yitzkhak deserved Academy Awards for their performances.[251]

Hank YorkEdit

YosselEdit

(ItB)

Yossel was a Jewish fighter in Poland. He intercepted Heinrich Jäger when Jäger was returning to Germany with a sample of plutonium. Yossel wanted to kill Jäger, but he was under orders to bring Jäger to Mordechai Anielewicz.[252]

Leon ZelkowitzEdit

(StB)

Leon Zelkowitz was part of Mordechai Anielewicz's band in Lodz in 1944. He informed Anielewicz that Oskar Birkenfeld, an Order Service district leader, wanted to speak to him.[253]

ReferencesEdit

  1. In the Balance, pg. 425-428, PB, pg. 321-325, HC.
  2. Striking the Balance, pg. 393.
  3. Ibid., pg. 394.
  4. Ibid., pg. 394-395.
  5. Ibid. pg. 471-472.
  6. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 152.
  7. Ibid., pg. 153.
  8. In the Balance, pgs. 83-88.
  9. Striking the Balance, pgs. 179-182, pb.
  10. Ibid., pg. 241.
  11. Ibid., pg. 181.
  12. Tilting the Balance, pg. 457-458, HC.
  13. In the Balance, pg. 60.
  14. Striking the Balance, pg. 42-43.
  15. Ibid., pg. 44.
  16. In the Balance, pg. 14, PB.
  17. Ibid., pg. 73.
  18. Ibid., pgs. 184-186.
  19. Tilting the Balance, p. 265-267, HC.
  20. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 83.
  21. Ibid., pgs. 168-171.
  22. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 242-243.
  23. Striking the Balance, pgs. 301-302.
  24. Ibid., pg. 316.
  25. Striking the Balance, pg. 86-87.
  26. Tilting the Balance, pg. 77-83.
  27. Striking the Balance, pg. 62-63.
  28. Striking the Balance, p. 314-315, HC.
  29. In the Balance, pgs. 477-478.
  30. In the Balance, pgs. 228-230, pb.
  31. Ibid., pg. 232.
  32. Inconsistency: the character is listed as "Jake" Calhoun in the Dramatis Personae at the beginning of the book. In the actual text, he is called "Jack".
  33. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 203.
  34. Striking the Balance, pgs. 178-179.
  35. Striking the Balance, pgs. 432-433.
  36. In the Balance, pg. 66.
  37. Ibid., pgs. 154-159.
  38. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 134-135.
  39. Ibid., pg. 136.
  40. In the Balance, pgs. 156-160, PB.
  41. In the Balance, pg. 342-344, HC.
  42. Ibid., pgs. 181-185, generally.
  43. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 409, PB.
  44. Striking the Balance, pg. 392.
  45. In the Balance, pgs. 340-341.
  46. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 150-151.
  47. In the Balance, pgs. 303-306.
  48. Striking the Balance, pgs. 212-213.
  49. In the Balance, pg. 439.
  50. Ibid., pgs. 439-441.
  51. Ibid., pgs. 483-484.
  52. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 246-248.
  53. Striking the Balance, pgs. 373-376 PB; pgs. 351-354, HC.
  54. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 221-222.
  55. Striking the Balance, p. 51-53, HC.
  56. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 135-36.
  57. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 23-27.
  58. In the Balance, pgs. 158-160.
  59. In the Balance, p. 410-411, HC.
  60. In the Balance, pgs. 9-12, HC; Tilting the Balance, pg. 222, HC.
  61. In the Balance, pg. 425-428, PB.
  62. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 45-49.
  63. Ibid., pg. 116.
  64. Ibid., pg. 118.
  65. Ibid., pg. 191.
  66. Ibid., pg. 196-197.
  67. Ibid., pgs. 267-272.
  68. Striking the Balance, pgs. 76-77.
  69. In the Balance, pgs. 57-59.
  70. Tilting the Balance, p. 300-302, HC.
  71. Striking the Balance, pgs. 35-37.
  72. Ibid., pg. 130-131.
  73. Ibid., pg. 283.
  74. Ibid., pg. 394-395.
  75. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 245, mmp.
  76. Striking the Balance, pg. 24, mmp.
  77. In the Balance, pg. 22, PB.
  78. In the Balance, p. 239, HC.
  79. In the Balance, pg. 425-428, PB, pg. 321-325, HC.
  80. Striking the Balance, pg. 385, mmp.
  81. Upsetting the Balance, p. 203.
  82. Tilting the Balance, p. 106, HC.
  83. Striking the Balance, p. 363, HC.
  84. In the Balance, pgs. 107-108.
  85. Striking the Balance, pgs. 217-219, 290-291, 356-357, HC.
  86. In the Balance, p. 14-15, HC.
  87. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 45-49.
  88. Ibid., pg. 118.
  89. Ibid., pg. 191.
  90. Ibid., pg. 118.
  91. Ibid., pg. 196-197.
  92. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 150-151.
  93. Striking the Balance, pgs. 76-77.
  94. Striking the Balance, pg. 161 pb.
  95. Ibid., pg. 163.
  96. Ibid., pg. 303-304.
  97. Ibid., pg. 163-164.
  98. Striking the Balance, pgs. 366-367, HC.
  99. Striking the Balance, pg. 333, HC.
  100. Striking the Balance, pgs. 319-320. HC.
  101. Ibid., pg. 393. HC.
  102. In the Balance, pg. 409-10.
  103. In her brief scene, her first name abruptly changes to Yevgenia. She is listed as Yevdokia in the dramatis personae.
  104. In the Balance, pgs. 241-242, PB, pgs. 239-240, HC.
  105. Tilting the Balance, p. 447, HC.
  106. In the Balance, pgs. 304-306.
  107. In the Balance, pg. 5-6, PB.
  108. In the Balance, pg. 6.
  109. In the Balance, pgs. 201-205, PB, pgs. 199-203, HC.
  110. In the Balance, pg. 3, PB.
  111. Ibid., pg. 266.
  112. Tilting the Balance, p. 279-282, HC.
  113. Ibid., p. 350-351, HC.
  114. In the Balance, p. 463, HC.
  115. Ibid., p. 319-320, HC.
  116. In the Balance, pgs. 340-341.
  117. In the Balance, chapter 16.
  118. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 372-376 PB, pgs. 297-300 HC.
  119. In the Balance, pg. 202-205
  120. Ibid., pg. 202.
  121. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 37-39
  122. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 138-143.
  123. Striking the Balance, pgs. 101-105.
  124. Ibid., pgs. 188-191.
  125. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 279-86.
  126. Striking the Balance, pgs. 329-330, HC.
  127. Tilting the Balance, p. 107-108, HC.
  128. Ibid., p. 351, HC.
  129. Ibid., p. 447, HC.
  130. Upsetting the Balance, p. 28-30, HC.
  131. Ibid., p. 111-112, HC.
  132. Ibid., p. 185-190, HC.
  133. Ibid., p. 366-371, HC.
  134. Ibid., p. 467-471, HC.
  135. In the Balance, pgs. 325-328, PB, pgs. 321-325, HC.
  136. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 509-511, mmp, 463-465, hc.
  137. Ibid., pgs. 519-521, mmp, 471-474, hc.
  138. Striking the Balance, p. 49-51, hc.
  139. In the Balance, pgs. 272-283.
  140. Striking the Balance, pgs. 398-400, HC.
  141. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 33-34.
  142. Ibid., pgs. 198-206.
  143. Ibid., pgs. 312-313.
  144. Striking the Balance, p. 334-335, HC.
  145. Striking the Balance, pgs.82-84.
  146. Ibid., pgs. 400-402.
  147. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 58-65, HC.
  148. See Inconsistencies in Turtledove's Work#Inconsistencies in Worldwar
  149. In the Balance, pgs. 301-308.
  150. See, e.g., Tilting the Balance, pgs. 149-153.
  151. Ibid., pg. 274.
  152. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 78-79.
  153. Ibid. 95-98.
  154. Tilting the Balance, p. 10, HC.
  155. Tilting the Balance, p. 10, HC.
  156. Tilting the Balance, p. 10, HC.
  157. Tilting the Balance, pg. 86-87.
  158. Ibid.
  159. Ibid., pgs. 346-348.
  160. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 18, PB.
  161. Ibid., pg. 367.
  162. Ibid., pgs. 454-456.
  163. Striking the Balance, pg. 457, pb.
  164. In the Balance, pgs. 138-142.
  165. Striking the Balance, pg. 46-47.
  166. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 488-490.
  167. Ibid., pgs. 572-590.
  168. In the Balance, pg. 51-52.
  169. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 190-191, HC.
  170. Striking the Balance, p. 66, HC.
  171. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 113-114, HC.
  172. His name is given as "Rudzutak" in the list of characters, but is more frequently spelled Radzutak within the text.
  173. Striking the Balance, pgs. 132-134, PB; pgs. 122-126, HC.
  174. Striking the Balance, p. 25, HC.
  175. In the Balance, pgs. 294, 379, HC.
  176. In the Balance, pg. 11.
  177. Ibid., pgs. 12-13.
  178. Ibid., pgs. 35-38.
  179. Ibid, pgs. 56-57.
  180. In the Balance, pg. 349.
  181. Worldwar: Striking the Balance, p. 101-104, HC.
  182. In the Balance, pgs. 325-328, PB.
  183. Worldwar: Striking the Balance, p. 276, HC.
  184. In the Balance, pg. 325-328.
  185. In the Balance, pgs. 439-440.
  186. Striking the Balance, pgs. 432-433.
  187. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 236-237, HC.
  188. Ibid., pgs. 236-237, HC.
  189. Ibid., p. 236-237, HC.
  190. Ibid., pgs. 236-237, HC.
  191. Ibid., pgs. 235-238, HC.
  192. In the Balance, pg. 36-37.
  193. Ibid, pgs. 36-37.
  194. Ibid., pg. 60.
  195. Ibid, pg. 132.
  196. In the Balance, pgs. 65-67.
  197. See, e.g. Ibid., pgs. 151-157.
  198. Ibid., pg. 347.
  199. In the Balance, pgs. 94-96, PB.
  200. Ibid., pg. 161.
  201. Upsetting the Balance, p. 111, HC.
  202. Striking the Balance, pg. 350, HC.
  203. Tilting the Balance, p. 442-444, HC.
  204. Striking the Balance, pgs. 95-97.
  205. Ibid., pg. 97.
  206. Tilting the Balance, ch. 8
  207. In the Balance, pg. 102.
  208. Striking the Balance, pgs. 342-345, HC.
  209. In the Balance, p. 343-344.
  210. In the Balance, pg. 479, PB.
  211. In the Balance, pg. 455-456.
  212. Ibid., pgs. 457-458.
  213. Upsetting the Balance, ch. 20.
  214. Striking the Balance, p. 93-94, HC.
  215. Striking the Balance, p. 276, HC.
  216. In the Balance, pgs. 5-6, PB.
  217. Ibid., pgs. 42-43.
  218. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 34-35.
  219. Tilting the Balance, p. 68-69, HC.
  220. Ibid., p. 121-124, HC.
  221. In the Balance, pgs. 19-20, PB, pg. 21, HC.
  222. Striking the Balance, pgs. 102-103.
  223. In the Balance, pg. 69, PB
  224. Ibid., pgs. 70-71, generally.
  225. Ibid., pgs. 182-186.
  226. Ibid., pgs. 366-368.
  227. Striking the Balance, pg. 436, PB.
  228. In the Balance, p. 21, HC.
  229. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 311, HC.
  230. In the Balance, pg. 66, PB.
  231. In the Balance, pgs. 234-239.
  232. Upsetting the Balance, pgs. 309-312, HC.
  233. Tilting the Balance, p. 52-56, HC.
  234. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 21-22.
  235. In the Balance, pgs. 390-392.
  236. In the Balance, pg. 401, PB.
  237. In the Balance, p. 66-67, HC.
  238. In the Balance, pg. 15.
  239. Ibid., pgs. 103-108.
  240. Tilting the Balance, pgs. 74-76.
  241. Ibid. pg. 83-84.
  242. Ibid. pg. 165.
  243. Upsetting the Balance, pg. 119-122, HC.
  244. Striking the Balance, pgs. 95-97.
  245. Tilting the Balance, p. 23-24, HC.
  246. Striking the Balance, pgs. 179-182, pb.
  247. Ibid., pg. 241.
  248. Ibid., pg. 181.
  249. In the Balance, pg. 66, PB.
  250. In the Balance, p. 125-127, HC.
  251. Striking the Balance, pg. 86-87.
  252. In the Balance, pgs. 372-376.
  253. Striking the Balance, pg. 301.