These are fictional countries appearing in the short works of Harry Turtledove and/or Laura Frankos. This may include fictional countries on Earth, as are often found in alternate history, as well as those found in fantasy or science fiction realms. These countries often do not have well defined borders in either print or cover images. Their government may be broadly defined by type, but the identities of office-holders are not disclosed. Their histories are usually vague, particularly in alternate history stories. Even countries that serve as the primary setting may be listed here if they are still insufficiently developed outside the narrow scope of the plot.

This article may at times be written both in and out of universe, depending on the country being discussed.

Countries on Earth[]

"The Breaking of Nations"[]


After the secession of Pacifica from the United States in 2031, New York, New Jersey, and New England look into forming a similar nation. The northeast nation, foreshadowed frequently in Harry Turtledove's story, is named Newtopia in the sequels "The Purloined Republic" by James Morrow and "Because it is Bitter" in Cat Rambo. Since Harry Turtledove did not contribute to the sequels, Newtopia will not be described further here.

"Down in the Bottomlands"[]

A fan-drawn "Down in the Bottomlands" map, based on information stated in the novella. It may not reflect Turtledove's intention with complete accuracy.


Duvai shared the southwest section of the Great Continent with the Principality of Lissonland. It occupied the eastern part of the section and bordered with the Hereditary Tyranny of Tartesh to the north and the Krepalgan Unity to the northeast. It did not claim any part of the Bottomlands.

Duvai was populated by Highheads.

Principality of Lissonland[]

The Principality of Lissonland shared the southwest section of the Great Continent with Duvai. It occupied the western part of the section and bordered with the Hereditary Tyranny of Tartesh to the north. It possessed a southern strip of the Bottomlands with the bulk of the sub-sealevel desert claimed by Tartesh.

Lissonland was populated by Highheads and ruled by the Prince.

Empire of Stekia[]

Empire of Stekia, a large empire in the Double Continent, whose land includes the Grand Canyon. Mentioned in passing.[1]

"Half the Battle"[]

Namerican Empire[]

The Namerican Empire was cobbled together by King Bryon of Canoga and his descendants in the centuries after the Burning. Using technological information recovered from pre-Burning society, the Namerican Empire expanded from small Canoga to include all of Ellay, then encompassing SoCal, and eventually annexing Vegas and the Zona.

Over a period of three generations, technological advancement, led by the Technology Recovery Section, saw the Namerican Empire go from single shot guns to repeaters, to fighter planes, space shuttles, and starships.


SoCal was a kingdom in North America, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It grew out of the much smaller kingdom of Canoga and was ruled by King Burger. Between himself and his father, King Bryon, Canoga grew to encompass all of its neighbors in Ellay and beyond to form this kingdom.

Eventually under King Burger, the kingdom of SoCal would stretch to Zona and finally become the Namerican Empire.

"Manuscript Tradition"[]

New Texico[]

The name implies that this nation includes Texas and New Mexico, but it is not otherwise described.

West Coast[]

Implicitly, this nation includes California, Oregon, and Washington, but is not otherwise described. Both the West Coast and New Texico maintain an infoblockade against the United States. However, in 2219, video of an anti-Mormon riot in Sacramento leaked out past the blockade.[2]


West Coast People's Democratic Republic[]

The West Coast People's Democratic Republic was a communist state located on the west coast of North America. As was common among the fraternal socialist states, the Communist Party ruled the country absolutely. The National Bureau of Investigation was the government's strong arm.

The state of California was an important part of the WCPDR. Cities were sub-divided into regional party committees, which were in turn sub-divided into blocks, which were overseen by individual chairmen who usually did as their immediate committees bid them.

Elections took place when the Party deemed them appropriate. Other political parties, such as the Democrats, the Progressives and the Republicans were still legal, but citizens were directed to vote for the CPWCPDR.

As was often the case in socialist states, the upper echelons of the Party's nomenklatura enjoyed more power and privilege than the average workers they were nominally working on behalf of. Thus, a quiet resistance began to grow, with average citizens slowly working against state.[3]

Literary comment[]

In a separate interview, Turtledove stated that the WCPDR is located on the west coast of the United States. That implies Washington and Oregon are also part of the WCPDR, but the text of the story itself does not make that explicit.

Northeastern Soviet Socialist Republic[]

The Northeastern Soviet Socialist Republic was located on the northeast coast of North America. Once, a General Secretary of the NESSR had lived by the motto "With an iron fist, we shall lead mankind to happiness". To that end, he turned Long Island into a corrective-labor camp for "deviationists" and had worked or frozen hundreds of thousands more to either exhaustion or death in Maine. His actions provoked a full-scale revolt that was quickly halted by the Soviet Union, which replaced the general secretary. Charlie Simpkins had just graduated from high school when the Soviet Union intervened.[4]

While the NESSR likely includes all of New York State and New England, the story doesn't explicitly state this.

Southern Confederated People's Republic[]

Aside from the fact that Old Dominion Province makes good bourbon, we are told nothing else about the Southern Confederated People's Republic.[5]

"The Pugnacious Peacemaker"[]


A Skrelling-dominated nation to the south of Tawantiinsuuju, the two have diplomatic relations.[6]


A Sioux-dominated nation comprising OTL Wisconsin, Ohio, and parts of North Dakota and South Dakota. Dakotia is the archnemesis for a large part of L. Sprague de Camp's "The Wheels of If," and is referenced a few times in Harry Turtledove's sequel.


A Cherokee-dominated nation in North Skrelleland, referenced by de Camp as Cherogia and Tjeroogia at different times. Turtledove references the nation by its latter spelling. While Tjeroogia is generally on good terms with Tawantiinsuuju, it finds its latest claim to lands disputed with the dar al-Harb to be specious.[7]

"Running of the Bulls"[]

See Places in "Running of the Bulls".

Countries on Other Worlds[]

"After the Last Elf is Dead"[]

Dark Realm[]

The Dark Brother's empire spread across most of the world, absorbing the Western Realm in the War Between the Dark and the Light, and appropriating its capital of Lerellim. The Dark Realm isn't actually called that in the story, so the name is used here for convenience.

Western Realm[]

The Western Realm, with its capital at Lerellim, was ruled by the High King until the War Between the Dark and the Light, when it was overrun and occupied by the forces of the Dark Brother, becoming a division of the Dark Realm.

"The Boring Beast"[]


An ogre-filled land out in the Styx.


The country where Prince Elagabalus is from.


The coastal city-state ruled by King Philiboustros, where most of the story takes place. It is an analog of any number of interchangeable crime- and action-filled ports where Robert E. Howard's Conan often finds himself in his episodic adventures. Zamora first appeared in "The Tower of the Elephant". "Zamorazamaria", when spoken with a lisp, resembles a cheerful phrase from everyday usage.

Clever Rolf Stories[]


Argentan was a city-state ruled by Baron Bardulf. The Great Wood was nearby. Clever Rolf was a notable adventurer from Argentan, who had two confrontations with the evil wizard Mebodes,[8] and later had a philosophical discussion with a talking cat.[9]

Argentum is the Latin word for silver, an element which plays a crucial role in "Blue Fox and Werewolf".


Estreby was a slightly larger city-state bordering Argentan. It was home to the wizard Rigord, who was originally an Iverian.[10]


Redford's Star[]

Mentioned in passing in the story "The Great Unknown." As it is a proverbial tourist destination, it is probably not literally a star. Given the context, it appears to be a planet.[11]

"Festival Night"[]


Gosra was located to the southeast of Cathaly. Hilarion retired there after resigning as High Haruspex of Cathaly.[12]

"The Golden Fir"[]


The Gastarok were neighbors of Valnia. They were born smugglers, and so trading with them could be difficult.[13] Valnia concluded a trade agreement with the Gastarok just prior to Queen Hovsefa's illness; she was discussing it with minister Ariam and mage Purvasa when Hovesefa had her first symptoms.[14]



The Kingdom of Gothia once maintained an Amazon Corps of virgin unicorn-riders. Because virgins tended to be small and inexperienced in battle, the corps was not as effective as it could have been. Many of the members did not keep their virginity, and the ranks decreased at a quick rate.


The Dukedom of Hispalis once maintained the Stripling Squadron, which consisted of about 100 youths aged to 14 to 17. Because they had not lost their virginity, the lads were able to ride unicorns. Their lack of combat experience and small body size hampered the squadron's effectiveness. Also, half of them lost their virginity and thus became of no further use to the squadron.


The County of Iveria was ruled by Count Rupen, with the aid of his seneschal Milo.

Under Rupen's reign, Iveria successfully defeated the neighboring county ruled by Gui, and claimed a disputed valley. Their victory relied primarily on the services of the mercenary Coradin Honeymouth, who rode a unicorn.

The wizard Rigord originally came from Iveria. When performing his magic, he chanted in an Iverian dialect so thick that Argentans could not follow it.

Note on Clever Rolf Stories: Iveria is also fleetingly referenced in "Mebodes' Fly". While not confirmed to be the same Iveria, it is treated here as such for convenience.

Unnamed County bordering Iveria[]

This nation, ruled by Count Gui, lost the claim to a desirable valley when defeated by the army of Iveria.

Isaac's Universe[]

In "Island of the Gods," Bongliich III, Rop, and Mopona II are mentioned in passing as planets where Hidden Folk presence has been discovered.[15] These may be references to planets from non-Turtledove stories in the same universe.

"Leg Irons, the Bitch and the Wardrobe"[]


Leffing is the kingdom where the story takes place. Ruled by King Pennilvath, the country recently won two wars, and the Combined Kingdoms' Dramatic Festival is an important cultural event. People from the western part of the kingdom have strange customs and an accent which emphasizes the letter H.

The kingdom bordering Leffing[]

This unnamed kingdom has a tradition of sea legends, and part of the population are merfolk. The unnamed king is referenced, and his son Prince Harrold appears directly.

"Les Mortes d'Arthur"[]


By the turn of the 23rd Century, Luna[16] was an independent nation on the Earth's Moon. It was wealthy enough to send a large team to Mimas, a moon of Saturn, for the Sixty-sixth Winter Games, and to have their athletes train there in the low-g environment beforehand.

"Someone is Stealing the Great Throne Rooms of the Galaxy"[]

Galactic Empire[]

This government of the entire Milky Way galaxy is apparently an absolute monarchy, whose capital is Galactic Central. Other known planets are Alpharalpha B, Amana XI, Earth, and Gould IV. While the name Galactic Empire is used frequently in science fiction, in context it is likely an allusion to the Foundation Series of Turtledove's mentor Isaac Asimov.

"The Summer Garden"[]

Kar V'Shem[]

The Empire of Kar V'Shem includes the town of Sennar where the story takes place, but no further information about this Empire is ever given.



The noble houses of the Duchy of Strymon each had their own peculiar traditions. Most notable of these was the tradition wherein the counts of Sirmion were always killed by a vampire. The barons of Kypros didn't eat mutton. The counts of Geta married and divorced at the church of Mistra, even though the Pechenegs had reduced it to ruins two hundred years before. The chevaliers of Lazica preferred boys to women, but their wives made sure the line continued.[17]


  1. See, e.g., We Install and Other Stories, loc. 2551.
  2. https://www.tor.com/2020/02/19/manuscript-tradition-harry-turtledove/
  3. Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction September/October, 2018, ebook.
  4. Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction September/October, 2018, ebook.
  5. Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction September/October, 2018, ebook.
  6. Down in the Bottomlands and Other Places, p. 228.
  7. Ibid., p. 231.
  8. "Blue Fox and Werewolf" and "Mebodes' Fly," generally.
  9. "The Talking Cat," generally.
  10. Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, vol 83, no 1, July 1992, pg. 101.
  11. E.g., 3xT, p. 583, HC.
  12. Spells of Wonder, p. 150.
  13. Lace and Blade 5, loc. 784, ebook.
  14. Ibid. loc. 765-784.
  15. Diplomacy Guild, p. 232.
  16. .See also: Literary Allusions in Turtledove's Work.
  17. Amazing Stories, vol. 57, #4, 1983, pg. 91.