This article lists the various minor fictional characters who appear in the Darkness series.

Posthumous Characters[]

These characters died significantly before the series takes place.

Aquilante V of Algarve[]

Aquilante V was a king from Algarve's history. A room of the royal palace at Trapani was named the Salon of Aquilante V.[1]

Dudone of Algarve[]

Dudone was King of Algarve during the Six Years' War. He was the father of Mezentio (his successor) and Mainardo.[2] Dudone was considered to have been more civilized and ethical than his son. It is said he would sooner have jumped off a cliff than authorize the genocide against Kaunians to create "Special Magecraft".

Literary comment[]

Dudone serves as a loose analog of Wilhelm II, German Emperor.

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Last known is Aquilante V
King of Algarve Succeeded by

Gedimainas of Kaunia[]

Gedimainas was a Kaunian Emperor. His defeat of the Belsiti, an Algarvic tribe, was commemorated by an arch in Skrunda, Jelgava. This arch was one of many such monuments demolished by Algarvian occupiers during the Derlavaian War.[3]

Guntram of Unkerlant[]

Guntram was the King of Unkerlant during and after the Six Years' War. He was the father of the twins Swemmel and Kyot. Upon his death a few years after the Six Years' War, neither Swemmel nor Kyot would admit to being the younger twin, sparking a civil war known as the Twinkings War.[4]

Literary comment[]

Within Unkerlant's role as a parallel for 20th-century Russian/Soviet history, Guntram plays the odd dual role of both Nicholas II of Russia and Vladimir Lenin.

Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Unkerlant Succeeded by
(power disputed with Kyot)

Hilde of Forthweg[]

Queen Hilde was the consort of King Plegmund of Forthweg. In the final phase of the Derlavaian War, the Algarvian occupiers recruited Forthwegian women into Hilde's Helpers, a catering service for Algarvian soldiers.

Kyot of Unkerlant[]

Kyot was the twin brother of Swemmel of Unkerlant. After their father King Guntram died, Swemmel and Kyot each declared themselves to be the older twin, and each claimed the throne. The result was the Twinkings War, which devastated Unkerlant.

Although Kyot's faction held the capital, Cottbus, and Kyot granted Zuwayza its independence in an effort to free up more troops to fight Swemmel, his armies were eventually beaten. Kyot himself was captured and publicly executed by Swemmel; the 'usurper' was boiled alive in a cauldron of oil.[5]

A generation later, Marshal Rathar reflected that, despite his horrific end, Kyot had been no different from Swemmel, and doubted that Unkerlant would have been any better off had Kyot won instead.

Literary comment[]

Kyot is broadly based on several opponents of Joseph Stalin in his rise to power, most importantly Leon Trotsky.


Lothar was an Unkerlanter General during the Six Years' War. As he was of half-Algarvian ethnicity, stories sprang up about his depravity.[6]

Melbardis of Kaunia[]

Melbardis was a Kaunian Emperor who began his reign as a usurper. His currency was made of bronze.[7]


Mikulicius wrote poetry during the Late Imperial Times of the Kaunian Empire. Mikulicius witnessed and wrote about the crumbling of the Empire.[8]

Literary comment[]

Unusually for classical Kaunians in the series, Mikulicius' name ends with the Latin (i.e., Roman) suffix "ius" rather than the Baltic "as."

Plegmund of Forthweg[]

King Plegmund the Great ruled Forthweg, four centuries before the Derlavaian War. He was widely considered the greatest king in Forthwegian history.[9] Queen Hilde was his consort. Under his kingship Forthwegian forces defeated both Algarvian and Unkerlanter armies and expanded into both kingdoms' territories, a reversal of the usual historical pattern in which Forthweg's borders are infringed upon by its larger neighbors. An equestrian statue of Plegmund, twice the size of life, stood in an Eoforwic park.[10]

During the Derlavaian War, Algarvian authorities hoped to invoke Forthwegian antipathy toward Unkerlant by raising a Forthwegian military unit under the Algarvian chain of command. It was named Plegmund's Brigade.[11] Plegmund would have sat up in his grave to know that his name was put to this use.[12]

Literary comment[]

Plegmund shares a name with a 10th-century Archbishop of Canterbury.


Velho was a Lagoan admiral during the final phase of the Lagoas-Sibiu Wars. During the Derlavaian War, Sibian freedom fighters received their orders for the liberation of their homeland in the Velho Room of the Admiralty in Setubal. Commander Cornelu felt that assigning such a meeting to a room of that name was less than tactful.[13]

Verigas II of Kaunia[]

Verigas II was a Kaunian Emperor who reigned two centuries before the Algarvian Irruption. During his reign, fashionable men wore beards and the women had their hair piled high on their heads with curls.[14]

Contemporary Characters[]

The following characters were alive when the series began, or died just before it. They play, at best, a peripheral role in the series. While they were usually given a name, some weren't. Most were simply mentioned or had a very brief, unimportant speaking role that did not impact the plot, and never appeared again.


(Into the Darkness)

Marquis Adomu, a Colonel in the Jelgavan army at the start of the Derlavaian War, took over the late Dzirnavu's command. The soldiers' relief at having a competent commander for a change was dashed when Adomu was felled by a blaze from an Algarvian stick.[15]

Ahinadab of Ortah[]

(Through the Darkness-Rulers of the Darkness)

Ahinadab was the King of Ortah during the Derlavaian War. He strove to keep his kingdom neutral,[16] but was unable to prevent retreating Algarvian troops or their Unkerlanter pursuers from trampling through his kingdom. He sent strong protests to both Trapani and Cottbus, but Kings Mezentio of Algarve and Swemmel of Unkerlant each simply demanded that he declare war on the other.[17]


(Darkness Descending-RotD)

Almonio was an Algarvian constable stationed in Gromheort, Forthweg. He always begged off from the duty of grabbing Kaunians out of their homes in small villages and relocating them to the Gromheort ghetto, which made them easier to be sent west for human sacrifice. While his superiors usually granted this request for conscientious objector status, there were occasions when a shortage of men forced him to take part, with the threat of the guardhouse if he refused. He took to drowning his sorrows in the bottle. Bembo and Evodio were some of his teammates. While they found the roundups distasteful, they nevertheless obeyed the orders regardless of personal feelings.[18]

While Bembo was deeply moved by Almonio's behavior, he was surprisingly forgetful of credit. After the war ended, Bembo incorrectly remembered Evodio rather than Almonio as the conscientious objector.[19]


(DD, Out of the Darkness)

Alpri was the husband of Gizella and the father of Istvan, Saria, and Ilona. When Istvan came home to Kunhegyes, on leave from the Derlavaian War, Istvan was surprised to notice how much of a backwoods accent Alpri had.[20]



Arnulf was the firstman of a Forthwegian village occupied by Unkerlanters at the start of the Derlavaian War. While he appeared to grudgingly agree to quarter soldiers including Leudast in his village, he and his wife were caught using voodoo dolls to poison the occupiers, and were blazed on the spot.[21]



Ascovind was a Grelzer villager who informed on the Unkerlanter irregulars to the Algarvian occupiers. When the village was liberated by Garivald's irregulars, Ascovind was executed vigilante-style by three of his neighbors, probably by bludgeoning.[22]



Batthayany was the brother of Alpri's father. He asked his great-nephew Sergeant Istvan if the stars still remembered Istvan in distant lands, and Istvan told him yes.[23]

Three years later, Batthayany died peacefully in his sleep.[24]



Benczur was a Gyongyosian soldier under Sergeant Istvan's command. He partook in the defeat and killing of a squad of Unkerlanters and the capture of their food, and the subsequent shame of realizing that the meat he had eaten was goat.[25]



Carietto was an Algarvian brigadier during the Derlavaian War. At a royal reception in Trapani, Carietto told a dirty joke about women, which was appreciated by both Colonel Spinello and King Mezentio himself. However, the discussion soon turned to the war effort against Unkerlant, and Carietto said to the king's face, "We should have been readier when we struck them, then." Mezentio replied "Thank you for your confidence in us, Carietto." Spinello interpreted the king's face to mean that Carietto would never see another promotion, and Carietto's face to mean that he might get the idea to deliberately get killed in the next battle.[26]



Count Casmiro, a native of Trapani, made his reputation as a big game hunter in Siaulia. During the Derlavaian War, he joined Algarve's army and reached the rank of colonel. During the Battle of Sulingen, he was one of the army's best master snipers. He got into a feud with his Unkerlanter opposite number Colonel Chariulf, which Casmiro ultimately lost.[27]

Literary comment[]

Casmiro appears to based on Erwin Koenig, the Wehrmacht sniper whom Soviet media declared to have lost the apocryphal "sniper's duel" during the Battle of Stalingrad.



Chariulf was a colonel in the Unkerlanter army. A master sniper, he faced off during the Battle of Sulingen with the his Algarvian opposite number Colonel the Count Casmiro, which he ultimately won. His victory was short-lived, as he was killed by a random Algarvian egg soon after.[28]

Literary comment[]

Chariulf appears to based on Vasily Zaytsev, a Red Army sniper credited with winning an apocryphal "sniper's duel" during the Battle of Stalingrad.


(DD, OotD)

Csokonai was Istvan's cousin, and a sentry at the gates of Kunhegyes. Istvan and Csokonai often ribbed each other.[29]



Doeg, son of Abishai, son of Abiathar, son of Chileab was an Ice People caravan master. His spirit animal was the ptarmigan. He transported the refugees Fernao and Penda from Heshbon to Mizpah.[30]



Dustbunny was Talsu's family's cat. She was good at catching rats.[31]



Count Dzirnavu was a Colonel in the Jelgavan army at the start of the Derlavaian War. Vartu was his valet. Smilsu and Talsu were among the soldiers in his command.[32] A beautiful young Algarvian woman was brought to Dzirnavu as a prisoner, and the Colonel announced his intention to "interrogate" her as a spy, which he did by raping her. That night (as investigators determined from piecing together the clues), Dzirnavu fell asleep, after which the woman managed to get a hand free, found a convenient tool, stabbed the Colonel to death, and either evaded the sentries or bought their silence with her body. Smilsu said that this would ultimately work against the Algarvians, as Dzirnavu's successor would surely be a better commander.[33]



Eanfled was a Gromheort woman who paid a mage to help her lose weight. When this did not work, she appealed to Constables Bembo and Oraste to help her get redress. The corrupt Algarvian enforcers threatened to haul both Eanfled and the mage before the military governor. When Eanfled was obviously nervous, Bembo became suspicious that she might have Kaunian blood. In the end, both Eanfled and the mage paid off the constables rather than be taken into custody.[34]

Eforiel (Sibian)[]


Eforiel was the first woman Cornelu loved. His leviathan Eforiel was named for her, something of which his wife Costache was ignorant.



Elfsig was the father of Felgilde. When Leofsig sought to break his engagement to Felgilde, to protect his Kaunian-loving family from undue attention, his father Hestan assured him they would come up with an excuse to deflect suspicion.[35]



Enkuru was the Count of a Valmieran region which included Pavilosta and Adutiskis. He ruled brutally, charging outrageous tax rates, and collaborated with the Algarvians who overtook Valmiera early in the Derlavaian War. He was blazed by a stick in a raid by a partisan band which was led by Gedominu and included Skarnu.[36]

In his youth, Enkuru had raped a woman who became pregnant with a son, and never owned up to this deed.[37]



Lieutenant Ercole took over the late Captain Zerbino's section of Plegmund's Brigade during the Battle of the Durrwangen Bulge. Although he looked only 18 years old, he seemed to know what he was doing. [38] This did not save him from being burned to death by Unkerlanter special magic.[39]



Gergely was the wife of the Gyongyosian mage Borsos. While Borsos was serving with the army in the Derlavaian War, he sent her a gift of a dildo, in the hope that she would use it and think of him rather than straying.[40]



Gippias was a jewel thief in Gromheort. While fleeing the scene of his crime, he was fatally blazed with a stick by Constable Oraste. In death, his magical disguise disappeared, changing his appearance from Forthwegian to Kaunian. As the jewels were evidence of a serious crime, Oraste and Bembo could have officially confiscated them for the evidence room, but unofficially for their own pockets. A timely bribe from the jeweler avoided this inconvenience.[41]



Giurgiu was a Sibian woodcutter and foreman.


(DD, OotD)

Gizella was the wife of Alpri and the mother of Istvan, Saria, and Ilona. She prepared supper for the clan during Istvan's leave from the Derlavaian War.[42]



Goscinnio[43] was an Algarvian portraitist who fled his native land at the end of the Six Years' War, and settled in the newly founded Kingdom of Zuwayza. He was still living there during the Derlavaian War. Foreign Minister Hajjaj used this example, and that of Uderzo the florist, to show that Zuwayza had traditionally welcomed refugees. This weakened Algarvian Minister Balastro's position in berating Zuwayza for harboring Kaunians fleeing the murder camps in occupied territory.[44]



Gundioc was a Captain in the army of Unkerlant. During the Battle of the Durrwangen Bulge, Gundioc had his first and last taste of battle, falling to an Algarvian stick. Sergeant Leudast lamented the death of this officer who had shown genuine promise, in stark contrast to the headstrong fools who endangered their own troops and were likely to be fragged.[45]



Hadadezer was the Ortaho minister to Zuwayza during the Derlavaian War. He had a white beard that rode high on his cheeks and white hair that came down low on his forehead. On at least two occasions, he asked Zuwayzi Foreign Minister Hajjaj for advice on maintaining Ortah's long-standing neutrality, which Hajjaj was unable to give.[46]


(Jaws of Darkness)

Hagen was an Unkerlanter sergeant who took over for the late Kiun. He summoned help when Lieutenant Leudast was wounded in action.[47]



Horthy was the Gyongyosian Minister to Zuwayza. He was a big man with a grey-streaked beard.


(DD, OotD)

Ilona was the younger of Istvan's two sisters. She was one of the crowd at Kunhegyes who greeted him on his leave from the Derlavaian War.[48]



Jeush was a shaman of the Ice People. He warned the Algarvian dragonflier Sabrino that the murderous magecraft was an offense to the land and its gods, and that it would cause disaster. When Sabrino said that he had no control over the matter and that Brigadier Zerbino was in charge, Jeush replied that Zerbino had refused to hear it. Soon after, an Algarvian army destroyed itself through a backfiring spell, and Sabrino, looking down from his dragon, imagined Jeush saying I-told-you-so.[49]



Juhani was a Kuusaman physician who tended to Fernao and removed the cast from his leg. She refused full payment, as he had given so much in service against Algarve. Her own husband was off in the war himself.[50]


(DD, OotD)

Korosi was from Kunhegyes, Gyongyos. Ten years older than Istvan, he was something of a bully. But after Istvan came home on leave from the Derlavaian War, Korosi stepped out of Istvan's way, demonstrating his new-found respect for Istvan.[51]



Louhikko was a mage employed by the Kuusaman customs office at the Lagoan border. He inspected Fernao's baggage, which the Lagoan found annoying, as this level of security between the two neighbors had not existed before the Derlavaian War.[52]



Maironiu was a Valmieran farmer and partisan who transported Skarnu from Pavilosta to another part of the kingdom, after Skarnu's presence had been made known to Algarvian occupiers.[53]



Malindo was an Algarvian scholar who had been too old to be a soldier in the Six Years' War, but was still alive during the Derlavaian War. Malindo was aghast at the ritual slaughters of modern Kaunians, which had benefitted Algarve's war effort. On a chance encounter with Viscount Spinello at the Royal Cultural Museum, the old man confronted the army officer about this matter, and made Spinello too ashamed to continue visiting the museum.[54]



Major Melot commanded Unkerlanter forces during the Battle of Sulingen. When he reported his lack of resources to Marshal Rathar, General Vatran found his wording insubordinate, but Rathar said that Melot had only spoken truth. Within days, Melot was dead, killed in combat against the Algarvians.[55]



Mad Duke Morando owned notorious pleasure gardens outside of Cotigoro, Algarve.[56]



Grand General Nortamo commanded the Kuusaman forces (and, by default, the Lagoan forces as well) which landed in Jelgava during the Habakkuk invasion. The rank of grand general was a recent creation to put Nortamo on the same level as his Lagoan opposite number Marshal Araujo. Nortamo's unusual height and baldness may have indicated Lagoan blood. He wore hats a lot to deal with cold weather, and had a remarkably bland personality as well as a habit of overstating the obvious. The mage Ilmarinen found Nortamo irritating, and fantasized about strangling him. Nevertheless, he was a very intelligent, competent commander, which offset his faults.[57]

Nortamo was a member of the council that presided over the Algarvian instrument of surrender in Scansano, and explained to King Mainardo of East Algarve how he was king only at the behest of the victors.[58]



Oslac was a Forthwegian road-builder in Gromheort. Like many of his kind, he blamed the Kaunians for the Derlavaian War and Forthweg's fall. He almost came to blows with his teammate Leofsig, but all present were too tired to get into a brawl..[59]



Paalo was a mage from Kuusamo. He greeted Master Ilmarinen in the Jelgavan town of Ludza, and informed the senior mage of the recent Algarvian sorcerous attack which had killed Leino and Xavega.[60]



Peitavas was a Kaunian road-builder in Gromheort. He warned his Forthwegian teammate Leofsig that it might not be best to treat Peitavas like a human being, as that would make Leofsig a target of suspicion for the Algarvian occupiers.[61]



Major Rambaldo was an Algarvian regimental commander during the assault on Pewsum. He carried a small egg-shaped windup clock. Both Rambaldo and his clock were crushed by a closing chasm which had been opened up by Unkerlanter sacrifical magic.[62]



Salamone was an Algarvian soldier from Tricarico. Before being deployed to the Unkerlanter front during the Derlavaian War, he sired a son on Saffa, a constabulary sketch artist. It was presumed that Salamone was killed in action.


(DD, OotD)

Saria was the older of Istvan's two sisters. She was one of the crowd at Kunhegyes who greeted him on his leave from the Derlavaian War.[63]



Shelomith was the named used by the Lagoan spy who recruited Fernao to rescue King Penda of Forthweg from Yaninan captivity. Shelomith was presumably not his real name, as it was a name from the Land of the Ice People rather than Lagoas. [64]



Simanu succeeded his father Enkuru as Count of the Valmieran region which included Pavilosta and Adutiskis. Like Enkuru, Simanu made no secret of his comfort with the Algarvian occupiers. By custom, at his coronation, Simanu was to be presented a choice of two cows by a peasant. He was supposed to choose the skinny cow and let the peasant give him a box on the ear, to show he governed not for his own sake but for the sake of the people. Instead, he took the fat cow and punched the peasant to the ground. The audience began to riot in anger at this. Simanu's Algarvian bodyguards fired into the crowd.[65] Later, during a hunting expedition, Simanu was fatally blazed by the stick of Marquis Skarnu.[66]



Sunbeam was the camel of Colonel Muhassin of Zuwayza. Muhassin was quite fond of the beast despite its disagreeability, and the disdain of Hajjaj.[67]

Szinyei of Gyongyos[]


Marshal Szinyei was the commander of Gyongyosian forces during the Derlavaian War, serving Ekrekek Arpad. When Kuusamo destroyed the capital city Gyorvar with their superweapon, the entire royal family were killed. Szinyei declared himself the new Ekrekek, and began treating for peace with the Kuusamans.[68]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Erkrekek of Gyongyos Succeeded by
Incumbent at series' end



Thumper was Elimaki's dog. Elimaki's nephew Uto played a cruel prank on Thumper by animating his doggy dish so that it chased the poor canine all over the house, spilling dog food everywhere. For this mischief, Uto's mother Pekka made him sleep that night without his favorite toy leviathan.[69]



Uderzo[70] was an Algarvian florist who fled his native land at the end of the Six Years' War, and settled in the newly restored Kingdom of Zuwayza. He was still living there during the Derlavaian War. Foreign Minister Hajjaj used this example, and that of Goscinnio the portraitist, to show that Zuwayza had traditionally welcomed refugees. This weakened Algarvian Minister Balastro's position when he attempted to criticize Zuwayza for harboring Kaunians fleeing the murder camps in occupied territory.[71]



Urgan was a captain in the Unkerlanter army on the Gyongyosian front at the start of the Derlavaian War. Magnulf and Leudast were among the soldiers under his command. He was burned to death by dragon fire.[72]



Viana was a Lagoan mage assigned to the massive secret project in southeastern Kuusamo. Fernao was entranced by her beauty, much to the chagrin of Pekka, the married mage who had already had one night with him.[73] In her distress over Viana's rivalry, Pekka went for a walk to clear her head. This caused her to be well away from the mages' compound when an Algarvian dragon dropped a guided egg on it. While most of the mages survived the attack, Viana was one of the few fatalities. Pekka had mixed emotions upon realizing that her jealousy of the late Viana had saved her life.[74]



Vlaicu was a Sibian woodcutter in Giurgiu's team. Hearing that the Algarvians had put a price on the head of his teammate Cornelu, Vlaicu tackled Cornelu. He could have easily killed his quarry, but saw him as more valuable alive. This turned out to be a mistake, as Cornelu fatally crushed Vlaicu's skull in self-defense, and had to flee the forest for the city of Tirgoviste.[75]



Vorosmarty was a Gyongyosian five-star mage. At the end of Derlavaian War, he was chosen to escort his Lagoan colleague Fernao through the ruins of Gyorvar which had been destroyed by the Kuusaman superweapon. When he pointed out a dangerous hole in the ground for Fernao, the Lagoan thought the Gyongyosian would be happy to see the conqueror fall. Vorosmarty replied that he would, but would be afraid of reprisals. Vorosmarty then told Fernao that a new starless darkness walked in the world, and that Lagoas should be fearful of it.[76]



Yiannis was a Yaninan soldier who accompanied several international Algarvian allies, including the remnants of Plegmund's Brigade, in the retreat from Mandelsloh to the town of Kastritsi in his home country. He was suspicious of the other soldiers' constant chatter in the their own languages, in which the only word he knew was the name of his own country.[77]

Captain Zerbino[]


Captain Zerbino was an Algarvian officer overseeing the Forthwegian volunteers of Plegmund's Brigade during the Battle of the Durrwangen Bulge. When an insubordinate foot-soldier (probably Ceorl) accused the redheads of sending the Forthwegians first as stick-fodder, Zerbino courageously replied that he was charging in first, and they were following. He kept his word, and was killed by an egg during this assault.[78]


  1. Into the Darkness, p. 174, HC.
  2. ItD, pg. 18., PB.
  3. Darkness Descending, p. 99, mmp.
  4. DD, pg. 457, mmp.
  5. See Inconsistencies (Darkness).
  6. Through the Darkness, p. 57, HC.
  7. ItD, p. 280, HC.
  8. Jaws of Darkness, p. 377, HC.
  9. ItD, pg. 613, PB.
  10. TtD, p. 328-329, HC.
  11. DD, pg. 178, HC.
  12. TtD, p. 103, HC.
  13. Rulers of the Darkness, p. 406-407, HC.
  14. ItD, p. 52-53, HC.
  15. Into the Darkness, p. 186-189, HC.
  16. Through the Darkness, p. 459, HC.
  17. Rulers of the Darkness, p. 469-470, HC.
  18. Darkness Descending, p. 296-298, 337-339, mmp, TtD, 25-26, 279, RotD, 266-267, 356-357, HC.
  19. Out of the Darkness, p. 359, HC.
  20. Darkness Descending, p. 599-601, mmp.
  21. ItD, p. 457-460, HC.
  22. RotD, p. 491, HC.
  23. DD, p. 601, mmp.
  24. OotD, p. 466, HC.
  25. TtD, p. 184-186, HC.
  26. RotD, p. 424-425, HC.
  27. TtD, pgs. 344-346, 354, HC.
  28. TtD, pgs. 344-346, 354.
  29. DD, p. 595-597, mmp.
  30. ItD, p. 338-339, HC.
  31. DD, p. 197-199, mmp.
  32. ItD, p. 72-76, HC.
  33. Ibid., p. 150-155, HC.
  34. DD, p. 520-524, mmp.
  35. DD, p. 591-592, mmp.
  36. ItD, p. 388-390, HC.
  37. Out of the Darkness, p. 517. HC.
  38. RotD, p. 314-317, HC.
  39. Ibid., p. 334-335.
  40. See ItD, p. 294-295, HC.
  41. TtD, p. 434-436, HC.
  42. DD, p. 600, mmp.
  43. See Literary Allusions in Turtledove's Work.
  44. TtD, p. 20, HC.
  45. RotD, p. 176-180, HC.
  46. TtD, p. 459, HC, RotD, p. 469-470, HC.
  47. Jaws of Darkness, p. 400-402, HC.
  48. DD, p 600, mmp. At this point, "his sisters" are neither named nor numbered.
  49. TtD, p. 247-248, HC.
  50. TtD, p. 370-371, HC.
  51. DD, p. 598-599, mmp.
  52. DD, p. 20, mmp.
  53. TtD, p. 360-362, HC.
  54. RotD, p. 422-423, HC.
  55. TtD, p. 303-305, HC.
  56. ItD, p. 531, HC.
  57. OotD, p. 173-176, HC.
  58. Ibid., 312-313.
  59. DD, p. 500-501, mmp.
  60. OotD, p. 86-89, HC.
  61. DD, p. 594, mmp.
  62. JoD, p. 45-48, HC.
  63. DD, p 600, mmp. At this point, "his sisters" are neither named nor numbered.
  64. ItD, p. 119-124, 167-172, HC.
  65. DD, p. 141-147, mmp.
  66. Ibid., p. 264-270.
  67. DD, p. 15, mmp.
  68. OotD, p. 439, HC
  69. TtD, p. 232, HC.
  70. See Literary Allusions in Turtledove's Work.
  71. TtD, p. 20, HC.
  72. ItD, p. 34-35, HC.
  73. JoD, p. 392-393, HC.
  74. Ibid., p. 403-407.
  75. DD, p. 388-389, mmp.
  76. OotD, p. 439-442, HC.
  77. JoD, p. 473, HC.
  78. RotD, p. 186-188, HC.