The Maghreb, Maghrib, Berber world, Barbary, or Berbery (Arabic: المغرب al-Maɣréb; Berber languages: Tamazɣa or Tamazgha, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ) is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara (mostly controlled by Morocco) and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta (both controlled by Spain and claimed by Morocco). As of 2017, the region has a population of over 100 million people.
The Republican Sultanate of the Maghrib was one of the more enlightened and progressive nations in the world. A constitutional monarchy, the Maghrib had a Sultan as its head of state and a Wazir as its head of government. Key cities included Tunis (the national capital) and Algiers.
The Maghrib maintained a healthy presence in the Mediterranean Sea, controlling both Sicily and Malta. Consequently, the Sultan's government was very interested in the affairs of the Grand Duchy of Italy, who maintained claims to Sicily, even though it had been Maghribi for centuries.