Kolomyia (or Kolomyya, formerly known as Kolomea, Ukrainian: Коломия, Polish: Kołomyja, Russian: Коломыя, German: Kolomea, Romanian: Colomeea), is a city located on the Prut River in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, in western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Kolomyia Raion, the city is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast. The city rests approximately halfway between Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi, in the center of the historical region of Pokuttya, with which it shares much of its history.
The current estimated population was around 68,000 inhabitants as of 1993.
The city is a notable railroad hub, as well as an industrial center (textiles, shoes, metallurgical plant, machine works, wood and paper industry). It is a center of Hutsul culture. At the turn of the 20th century the city was the most populous city in Stanislawow voivodeship.
The city has been within the borders of several countries throughout its history. Originally founded under the Kievan Rus in the 13th Century, Kolomiya was annexed to Poland in 1340. It was annexed by Moldova in 1498 and held until 1531, when it was retaken by the Poles. During the Polish-Ottoman wars from the late 16th through the 17th Centuries, Kolomiya passed back and forth the between Poland and the Ottoman Empire. It was burnt to the ground in 1626. While it was ultimately rebuilt, Kolomiya was never as important to the region again.
In 1772, Kolomiya was claimed by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor as part of the First Partition of Poland. It remained under Austrian rule until the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. The town was a point of contention between the newly reformed states of Poland and Ukraine until it was ultimately held by the Second Polish Republic. In the end, the Soviet Union was able to seize Kolomyia with the outbreak of World War II. In 1990, with the collapse of the USSR, Kolomyia remained part of Ukraine.
Kolomyia in "The More it Changes"
In 1772, after it became a possession of Emperor Joseph II, the residents of Kolomija (largely Jews and Catholic Poles) became concerned that the town would be targeted by Sabbatean haidamacks as it had been in the past. The people were particularly alarmed, as it had only been four years since the last attack; prior attacks had taken place on an interval of 15 to 20 years.
In the beginning 1773, the haidamacks attacked neighboring towns. Several of the men of Kolomija, both Poles and Jews, banded together to try to fight off the haidamacks. Unfortunately, they failed. Several of the defenders were killed, and the Sabbateans burned both the church and the synagogue.