Continent: Europe
Capital: Berlin
National Language: German
Government: Federal parliamentary republic
Status in OTL: Active

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in West-central Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

A region referred to as "Germania" inhabited by several tribes was known and documented before AD 100. Despite the best efforts of the Roman Empire, this region was never subdued or annexed. Eventually, Germanic tribes played a role in the fall of the Roman Empire.

The Alemanni tribes give Germany its modern names in Romance languages: Allemagne in French, Alemania in Spanish, etc.

Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. This entity was devastated in the Thirty Years War in the mid 17th century, and reformed after the war centered around Austria rather than Germany. (The Holy Roman Empire name was abolished in 1806, and the entity became the Austrian Empire and then Austria-Hungary before dissolving completely in 1918.)

The modern nation-state of Germany was centered on the state of Prussia, and unified in 1871 after 65 years of three confederations. The newly formed empire quickly asserted itself in European and global politics, but the empire was shattered and the monarchy removed in 1918 with Germany's defeat in World War I. Germany was reformed as the semi-presidential Weimar Republic.

Anger at the country's war-time defeat combined with terrible economic conditions in the late 1920s saw the rise of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler in 1933 and the dissolution of the Weimar Republic. Hitler initiated a foreign policy intent upon placing Germany as the superpower in Europe. Hitler embraced notions of the superiority of the German "Aryan race", and the inferiority of other groups, most notably the Jews. Hitler's policy led to World War II and the Holocaust, and in turn led to Germany's absolute defeat in 1945.

In 1949, Germany was divided into two separate states — East Germany and West Germany — along the lines of Allied occupation, with the Soviet Union dominating the East, and the Western Allies, the United States in particular, dominating the West. The two states were reunited into a federal parliamentary republic in 1990. Germany has become the most populous country in Western Europe and has one of the largest economies on the globe.


The flag of Germany since 1990. It was formerly the flag of the Weimar Republic and West Germany.

Germany 1870

The flag of the German Empire, which was used from 1867-1918 and from 1933-1935 as a co-national flag alongside the swastika flag in OTL; it remained in use after those times in Southern Victory, Curious Notions and "Uncle Alf". In The War That Came Early, this flag was restored in 1944.

Worldwar Germany

The Nazi Party swastika, used as the German flag from 1933-1945. In a number of Harry Turtledove works, the flag remained in use after 1945, and even into the 21st Century.

Literary comment[]

In certain of his works, Harry Turtledove has altered Germany's history and explored that history in sufficient enough detail to justify separate articles. These are:

Germany (In the Presence of Mine Enemies) for the version found in the novel In the Presence of Mine Enemies.
Germany (Southern Victory) for the version found in the Southern Victory series.
Germany (The War That Came Early) for the version found in The War That Came Early.
Germany (Worldwar) for the version found in the Worldwar Franchise.

Germany in After the Downfall[]

Hasso Pemsel, a proud citizen of Germany, turned a blind eye to the excesses of the Nazi Party during World War II. Ultimately, Germany fell to the Russians at the end of the war. Hasso was saved from the depredations of the conquerors by a convenient magical transportation to a primitive world whose geopolitics resembled the one he had left. His subsequent experiences caused him to reevaluate Germany's role in his old world.

Germany in Atlantis[]

Mercenaries from a number of German states, including Hesse and Brunswick, fought for England during the Atlantean War of Independence.[1]

Germany in Broadway Revival[]

Germany was part of the Council that governed time travel.[2]

The first known Splinterverse originated in Reformation Germany. A Ripper had traveled there several times without incident. Suddenly, in 2074, the techs who monitored travel had two separate coordinates for September 1524. The Rippers monitored the new timeline, SV-1 1524 for five years, and determined that the changes were minor and centered on the Fürstenbergs, an aristocratic family.[3]

After David Greenbaum created SV-4 1934, a world in which he helped prolong the lives of a number of key figures of Broadway,[4] the original timeline had access to "new" music and theatrical productions. Realizing the potential, in 2089, Germany created a Splinterverse where Mozart didn't die at age 35. As of May, 2089, the German government was monitoring the timeline in anticipation of sending someone to collect "new" Mozart works.[5]

As he created what became SV-4 193, Greenbaum was focused on the Broadway composers only. Thus, Germany's history from 1934 on remained identical to the original timeline's history.[6]

Germany in "The Breaking of Nations"[]

In 2031, Germany was one of the countries that remained a fully functional democracy, while others, like the United States fell into fascism.[7]

Germany in The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump[]

Alemania was defeated in the First Sorcerous War, but rose again under the Leader's direction to begin the Second Sorcerous War. At a great cost, the Leader's brutal regime was defeated. By the late 20th century, Alemania was a pacified nation known as a manufacturer of minisingers.

Germany in "The Catcher in the Rhine"[]

While traveling through Germany, a young American tourist encountered the mythical dwarf Regin Fafnirsbruder, who transported the young man to the past, and ordered him to "save" the enchanted Valkyrie Brunhild.[8]

Germany in "Christmas Truce"[]

Soldiers from the German Empire participated in the Christmas Day truce in 1914 that brought the Great War to a halt for the day. Unfortunately, a Gefreiter named Adolf Hitler became enraged by the fraternization, and killed British officer in an attempt to end the truce. Hitler and was promptly killed by British Lieutenant Bill Meadows. The German officer present, Franz Wormser was able to keep the truce going with Meadows' help, despite the tragedy.[9]

Germany in Crosstime Traffic[]

In the home timeline, Germany was a member of the European Union. There were several alternates where Germany had won World War II. These were deemed particularly terrible. In some of them, the Axis had conquered the United States. The Crosstime Traffic employee Eduardo Caruso considered these alternates to be "only slightly worse" than one in which the Soviet Union won the Cold War.[10] In one of these alternates, Nazi Germany was responsible for starting a devastating nuclear war.

Germany in Curious Notions[]

In the alternate designated "3477" by Crosstime Traffic, Germany emerged victorious from the brief war of 1914 when the Schlieffen Plan proved a complete success, in no small part because Russia mobilized against Germany more slowly than it had in the home timeline. Stronger German forces wheeled around behind Paris, knocking France out of the war and Great Britain soon after. Russia was subsequently smashed, and broke up into smaller entities. Germany annexed various territories and created several puppet kingdoms, including Poland, Finland, Courland, and the Ukraine.

In the late 1930s, France and Britain initiated another war, but that was quickly snuffed out, and Germany proved to be the absolute ruler of Europe. Russia did not participate in this second war as it had never reunified after 1914. Germany turned its eyes to the United States, which watched Europe with great anxiety. By the late 1940s, Germany had developed the atomic bomb. In 1956, Germany attacked and defeated the United States, and instituted an occupation that was still in effect 150 years later.

Germany maintained its rule by keeping a tight lid on technological advances. Thus, when Paul and Lawrence Gomes, father-and-son employees of Crosstime Traffic and denizens of an alternate timeline opened the store Curious Notions in San Francisco, the German authorities took notice. The store sold technology that, while obsolete in the Gomes' home, was above anything available to the average American. The store also caught the eye of the Chinese-American Triads operating in the city.

This timeline was viewed by all Crosstime employees as a particularly bad one, though comparatively "less nasty" than another timeline, one in which Nazi Germany won World War II.

Germany in The Disunited States of America[]

Much as the United States failed to establish themselves as a country, the German states never unified. In the late 21st century, this left Prussia as the largest and most powerful of the numerous German-speaking states of Central Europe. Many Germans formed North American colonies, where they fought on behalf of Prussia against their pro-British neighbors during the Great War.

Germany in The Gladiator[]

Germany was under communist rule. Their history proved to be fodder for Soviet propaganda, as Adolf Hitler remained a bogeyman in the 2090s.[11]

The Germans made the Trabant automobile, which was notorious for its dirty emissions.[12]

Germany in In High Places[]

The Germanies were a set of independent provinces and kingdoms sharing a common language and culture. In the 14th century the Great Black Deaths wiped out 80% of the population in the Germanies along with the rest of Europe.

Like the Kingdom of Versailles, the people of the Germanies believed in the New Revelation of Henri. The Germans made the sign of the wheel in the opposite direction, which proved to their French cousins just how stupid Germans were.

Due to the many wars among the disparate states in the Germanies, interregnums were common into the late 21st Century.

German men wore tight breeches and rimless hats.

See also[]

Germany in Days of Infamy[]

Germany was locked in a death-struggle with the Soviet Union when its ally Japan invaded and occupied the American territory of Hawaii in December 1941. Days after the initial attack, Germany declared war on the United States. German U-boats' harassment of U.S. shipping in the Atlantic benefited Japan's position in the Pacific to some extent, but ultimately, Germany gave little aid to Japan's war-effort.

Germany in "Drang von Osten"[]

In 2041, Germany led a coalition of various European countries to meet China's invasion of Russia the same year. While the coalition was initially successful in meeting the invasion in European Russia, by 2043, the German lines were collapsing, and Chinese troops were making their way into Ukraine.[13]

Germany in "The Garden Gnome Freedom Front"[]

Most of the garden gnomes of Saint-Clément, Normandy, were manufactured in Germany, but considered themselves naturalized French gnomes.

In the 20th century, the humans of Europe fought World War I and World War II. Otto, a German-made gnome of Saint-Clément, sympathized with his adopted France rather than his native Germany in the first war, and actively intervened against a German soldier in the second. The reports provided by the former Garden Gnome Freedom Front suggest that numerous other gnomes took similar action under like circumstances during that war.

Germany in The Guns of the South[]

The America Will Break men spoke to each other in a strange guttural language which caused some Confederates to believe they were Germans. However, Avram Goldfarb, a native of German Kingdom of Prussia, examined a book written in their language, and found that it was not German, though it closely resembled it. This and other captured documents indicated that the AWB men admired certain German figures and institutions from their 20th century's history, including a disagreeable man named Adolf Hitler.

Germany in The Hot War[]

Germany was divided between the Western Allied Forces (the U.S., the U.K., and France) and the Soviet Union after World War II, yielding two new states, West Germany and East Germany. However, when World War III broke out in February 1951, the Soviet Union's primary goal was to occupy and reunify Germany under communist rule.

The war ended in July 1952 with the status quo antebellum restored. West Germany was completely smashed by the fighting, whereas East Germany was only moderately bombed.

Germany in "The House That George Built"[]

So great was H.L. Mencken's admiration for Germany that he severed his ties with the Sun papers in 1915 over their support for England against Germany during World War I. He did the same thing in 1941 during World War II.

Germany in "In This Season"[]

Germany overran the western part of Poland in 1939, and ruled the occupied territory harshly. This was the situation in which Berel Friedman found himself, at the time when his Chanukah "guest" arrived.

Germany in Joe Steele[]

Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany was concurrent with the rise of US President Joe Steele. The two shared a deep and abiding hatred of each other for most of the 1930s.[14] Ironically, Steele used a number of tactics used by Hitler as part of his own reign. Steele used Hitler and Nazism as tools to denounce his enemies; investigations of Steele's critics very often turned up "ties" to Hitler.[15][16].

In March 1936, Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland.[17] Steele condemned Germany's move, as well France's failure to respond. Hitler thumbed his nose at Steele, proclaiming that Steele had never been told that the U.S. did not have the right to fortify its own borders. Steele, clearly enjoying the essentially meaningless back-and-forth, reminded Hitler (and the world) that the U.S. border with Canada was 3000 miles long and completely unfortified, proving that trust counted more than fortifications.[18]

In March 1938, Hitler ordered the annexation of Austria,[19] and immediately began making claims on the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia.[20] Despite loud support from Steele and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky (who loathed each other more than either loathed Hitler), France and Britain, rather than fight Hitler, brokered a deal in which the Sudetenland was granted to Germany in September 1938.[21] Six months later, Germany annexed Bohemia and Moravia and created the independent Republic of Slovakia; Germany was now positioned to move on Poland, a situation the world at large was painfully aware of.[22]

Hitler now turned his attention to the Polish Corridor. Leon Trotsky, realizing that France and Britain could not be counted on, sent his foreign commissar, Maxim Litvinov to Berlin to negotiate a non-aggression pact with Litvinov's German counter-part, Joachim von Ribbentrop.[23] (Some found it ironic that the Jewish Trotsky had sent the Jewish Litvinov into the "world's capital of anti-Semitism."[24]) Germany invaded Poland a week later, setting off World War II.[25] The Soviet Union attacked Poland from the east a few weeks after that.[26]

While the U.S. remained neutral, Steele grew alarmed by Hitler's substantial successes from September 1939 through May 1940. When Germany defeated and occupied France, and forced British troops off the Continent, Steele realized that now only Britain stood between the U.S. and Germany in the Atlantic Ocean. He decided to supply Britain with arms and money.[27]

In early 1941, Germany invaded North Africa, Yugoslavia and Greece in order to save Italy's floundering efforts.[28] In June, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, shredding the previous non-aggression pact. While many predicted the Soviets falling out of the war in six weeks, instead, they dug in and fought.[29] With prodding from Churchill, Steele began aiding Trotsky. While Hitler protested, he did not go to war with the U.S.[30] The German advance captured Kiev and Smolensk, but the fall rains reduced Russian roads to mud, effectively halting the advance.[31]

On 7 December 1941, Japan, Germany's nominal ally, attacked the U.S., prompting the U.S. to declare war on Japan on 8 December. Three days later, Germany declared war on the U.S.[32] Germany began seeing a series of reversals the following year. The Soviets met German forces at Trotskygrad, held them, and were able to cut those forces off in the fall, prompting Steele to commend the Soviets on striking the Nazis a heavy blow.[33]  A few days later, U.S. General Omar Bradley led the landing of US and British troops in North Africa, driving the German forces out of Egypt through Libya. While the plan had called for a complete capture of German troops, the Afrika Korps were able to fall back to Tunisia.[34]

Things were even worse for Germany in 1943. The remaining German troops in Trotskygrad surrendered. However, the German military decided to let the Soviet advance exceed its supply line, and launched a counter-attack, again putting the Soviets on the defensive.[35]

In 1944, the end of the war was in sight. General Bradley oversaw the successful invasion of Normandy, thereby opening the long anticipated second front in Europe.[36] Paris fell to the Allies quickly thereafter. The Soviets' drive prompted Finland and Bulgaria to exit the war, and Romania to change sides. While Germany was able to overrun Slovakia and Hungary, and to hold a line in Italy, the writing was on the wall.[37]

Germany was able to hold out until May 1945, when, with two armies bearing down on Germany, Hitler committed suicide (it was initially reported that Hitler had died fighting the Russians). Shortly after his death, Germany surrendered unconditionally.[38] Germany was divided up among the victorious allies, eventually birthing two separate states: West Germany was established under the direction of the U.S., and East Germany, which was created by the Soviet Union.[39]

The two German states remained points of controversy in the tense political atmosphere that developed after 1945. After Steele's death in March 1953, U.S. officials were concerned that the Soviet Union might make a move in West Germany, but nothing happened.[40]

Germany in "The Last Article"[]

Germany defeated the United Kingdom in 1941 and had conquered all of Europe and the Soviet Union by 1947 when the Nazis added India to their empire. Germany was in the process of organising trade with Japan while supporting Vichy French forces in Africa against American backed Free French forces.

It was generally believed that Germany and Japan's next target would be the United States.

Germany in "Last Flight of the Swan of the East"[]

Like many of the other "great powers" of the world, the German Empire participated in the race to build leviathans while pursuing its own aims for territorial expansion. By 1914, Germany had built a formidable Kaiserliche Luftmarine, and maintained territories all over the globe, such as Tsingtao, China.[41] The German Empire had maintained close diplomatic ties to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the face of her deep enmity with France and Russia. Germany's relationship with the U.K. was peculiar; the ruling house of Britain was of German descent, and historically at least, Germany (or Prussia) and Britain had been allies. However, Germany's own aggressive empire-building and sizeable fleet of leviathans presented the U.K. with a potential rival.[42]

In July 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. Austria-Hungary issued a series of six ultimata against Serbia relating to the incident. Serbia, supported by its ally, Russia, accepted five demands, but refused to allow Austrian investigators to come to Serbia to help the investigation. In response, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, and Germany declared war on Russia. France, allied with Russia, declared on Germany. Japan, still stewing over her defeat at Russia's hands in 1896 and wanting to check Russian ambitions in the Pacific, declared war on Russia, allying herself with Germany and Austria-Hungary. The United States, having recently developed a rivalry with Japan, and concerned about Japan's ambitions in the Pacific, allied herself with France. Of the "great powers", only the U.K. remained neutral.[43]

One of Germany's commerce raiders, SMS Emden, went on a daring series of missions in the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific beginning in August 1914, until it was shot down by the Americans in December 1914.

For more information, see the Leviathans wiki.

Germany in "A Late Symmer Night's Battle"[]

Germany was the native land of kobolds. One kobold tribe left Germany to run a mining operation in northern Greece. Evicted by local humans, they turned their eyes to the Faerie kingdom ruled by Oberon and Titania.

Germany in The Man With the Iron Heart[]

In the immediate aftermath of World War II, Germany was divided up among the "big" four triumphant Allies: the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France. Each country administered its respective occupation zone with minimal input from the other three. Tensions were especially strong between the Anglo-American forces and the Soviets.

However, all sides were soon confronted with terrorist actions launched by the German Freedom Front (also known as the "Werewolves"), a specially trained underground group of unrepentant Nazis organized under the direction of Reichsprotektor Reinhard Heydrich beginning in 1943. Almost immediately, the GFF began a campaign of roadside bombings, suicide bombings, assassinations, and kidnappings in an effort to drive out the Allies.

Each occupier reacted differently. The Soviet Union, having endured a long and bloody war and occupation from 1941-3, and ruled by a government known for its brutality, responded with torture, hostage-taking, and mass executions. The French, also having endured a long occupation which ended only when the US and the UK drove Germany out, and desperate to regain face, responded in a similar fashion. The British, while having demonstrated its ability to take a hard line in its colonies, took a much softer line. The US took perhaps the softest of all, initially trying various tactics (including hostage taking as well), but found itself juggling the need to maintain security and the need to maintain its ideals of freedom. Consequently, the US saw a growing desire to end the occupation within its population.

From 1946 to 1948, the GFF was responsible for several acts that slowly wore down the American people's (if not its military and its government) willingness to continue the occupation. This included: the assassination of General George Patton; the kidnapping of American soldier Matthew Cunningham (whom the Werewolves filmed pleading for his life); the death of Pat McGraw (whose mother Diana spear-headed the recall of American troops); and the prevention of war crimes trials against top Nazi officials, including the truck-bombing of the Palace of Justice in November, 1945, the radium-bombing of Frankfurt and the crashing of a cargo plane into a courthouse in the Soviet zone.

The GFF also sent truck bombs into Paris and London, which saw the toppling of the Eiffel Tower in the former and the destruction of St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey.

While the Soviet Union was not directly attacked, various landmarks to Communism it had established in its zone were destroyed. Most importantly, most of its officers were killed on New Years' Eve, 1945 when a Werewolf poisoned their celebratory liquor with wood alcohol.

Despite these setbacks, Germany did start to see some form of normalcy. In the British, American, and Soviet occupation zones, political parties were set up. In the American zone, a German police force was established using US equipment. Though these governments and security services answered to the occupiers at the end of the day, Germans attained some measure of self-rule. Dismissing them as collaborators, the GFF would engage in political assassinations and bomb several police barracks. In time, a good number of the police meant to fight the GFF were GFF agents themselves.

Throughout 1946 and 1947, the tenacity of the GFF and the apparent helplessness of the Allies to stop them wore down the American public. In 1946, the electorate returned the Republican Party to power in Congress. In 1947, American troops were able to finally track down and kill Reinhard Heydrich. He was immediately succeeded by Joachim Peiper, who launched a series of hijackings aboard passenger planes. The House of Representatives refused to fund the continued occupation of Germany, leaving the US military no choice but to withdraw most of its forces.

With the Americans gone, the die-hard Nazis began their plans to return to power in western Germany. However, the USSR, knowing full well the consequences of withdrawal, were prepared to hold onto eastern Germany.

Germany in "Must and Shall"[]

Germany provided clandestine help to rebels in the American South (unreconciled to their defeat in the Great Rebellion nearly eight decades before) during both World Wars in an attempt to keep the US government busy at home and unable to intervene in European affairs.

Germany in "News From the Front"[]

Germany's efforts during World War II were benefited by the American media, which was very hostile to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941 and 1942.

Germany in "No Period"[]

As he contemplated his failed first marriage, a Jewish-American writer wondered if the marriage could have survived in an alternate timeline where Germany won World War II. He realized that, as a Jew, he'd have been murdered in such a world.

The writer remembered that Napoleon didn't hate Jews in particular, but hated everyone who got in his way, generally (making him an equal-opportunity hater). However, the writer then realized that Napoleon's troops would have invaded Germany, and his first wife's mother had roots in Germany, thereby reducing the likelihood that she would have existed as the writer knew her. So, he tried a new thought-experiment.[44]

Germany in Or Even Eagle Flew[]

Germany's initial successes in the opening months of World War II prompted several American citizens to join the militaries of various Allied Forces members in violation of U.S. government rules. Among these volunteers was Amelia Earhart, who headed to Europe in May 1940.[45]

Germany in "The Phantom Tolbukhin"[]

Germany defeated and occupied the Soviet Union during World War II. But even as late as 1947, the German army had to deal with guerrilla forces, the most notorious being Fedor Tolbukhin, nicknamed "The Phantom".

Germany in "Ready for the Fatherland"[]

Germany was able to negotiate a separate peace with the Soviet Union after Field Marshal Erich von Manstein shot and killed Adolf Hitler on 19 February 1943. Manstein became Germany's leader and oversaw the consolidation of its power in Europe, repelling the Allied invasions of Italy and France. In 1953, an exchange of sunbombs in Japan nearly brought the United States and the Soviet Union to war. Manstein was able to mediate a ceasefire. Joseph Stalin's timely death also helped diffuse the situation.

In 1979, as the Soviet Union threatened British oil resources in the Middle East, Britain opened up a dialogue with Germany, which was making claims to oil in the North Sea. At the behest of the German government, the British secret service helped the government of Croatia capture a Serb partisan, in exchange for unfettered access to the North Sea oil.

Germany in "Shtetl Days"[]

Under the rule of the Nazi Party, the German Reich emerged triumphant from the War of Retribution in the first half of the 20th Century, and soon imposed its will upon the globe. It systematically eliminated all of the world's Jews, making thorough records of Jewish culture as it did.

In the mid-21st Century, Germany established a variety of shtetls as tourist attractions. The shtetls were meticulous recreations of the villages the Reich had wiped out a century before. The Reich also hired historical re-enactors to reside in these villages and play the part of Jews. The commitment of the re-enactors to their craft was such that they learned Yiddish, Hebrew and Aramaic, studied the Talmud and the Torah, and soon, came to see themselves as Jews first, rather than Germans. In this way, the German Reich resurrected its long vanquished "enemy".

Germany in Through Darkest Europe[]

While Germany was a united empire, the emperors had no power, and the disparate German states (principalities, duchies, baronies, archbishoprics, etc.) remained autonomous in practice, each with their own currencies, armies, postal services, and custom inspection systems. Several of these small lords supported Aquinism, despite the efforts of the emperors to unite and modernize Germany.[46]

Italians traditionally regarded Germans as savage and uncouth, a cultural quirk which worked to the advantage of the government of the Grand Duchy of Italy in 2018.[47] When a number of Germans were among the Aquinists who incited violence throughout Italy, the government put out propaganda linking Aquinism with Germanness.[48]

Germany in The Two Georges[]

The German States continued to squabble among themselves into the late 20th Century and had never unified into a European, let alone world, power. Instead they remained a mishmash of separate kingdoms, principalities, duchies, archbishoprics, and free cities. Germans were known for their music, beer, heavy food and heavier philosophies. In the 1990s, the Russian Empire sought to dominate the Germanies.[49]

An American alternate history novel entitled The United Colonies Triumphant depicted a very different history in which Germany united, became a major world power and fought a great war with other European powers. In this fictional war, the North American former colonies of Britain came to Britain's aid, saving it from Germany. It was considered an entertaining but rather far-fetched and improbable speculation. Colonel Thomas Bushell of the Royal American Mounted Police found the novel's writing style to be poor, and considered the idea of Germany being united under a single malign ruler to be absurd.[50]

Germany in "Uncle Alf"[]

Germany defeated the Entente powers in the Great War of 1914, when General Alfred von Schlieffen successfully implemented his plan for a two-front war. Germany occupied both France and Belgium immediately afterward, a situation which still persisted in 1929.[51] In 1916, Germany came to the aid of its former enemy, Russia, helping to put down a communist revolution.[52]

Germany in "Zigeuner"[]

During his rise to power in Germany, Adolf Hitler claimed that while his division was fighting the Russian Empire in World War I, they also had to contend with the Zigeuner people. Hitler claimed that the Zigeuner stole horses and boots and telegraph wire, helping to cause unnecessary German casualties.[53] At the same time, Hitler also saw how badly the Russians treated the Jews they found in the Austro-Hungarian provinces they overran. Hitler already hated the Russians, and their anti-Semitism left him sympathetic to the Jews.[54]

Upon his ascendancy, Hitler declared Zigeuner to be Untermenschen, along with Bolsheviks and homosexuals.[55] With the outbreak of World War II, Hitler directed the SS to round up and eliminate the Zigeuner they found in the areas under German rule. Hitler also directed Germany's allies to follow suit. Even when the war had plainly turned against Germany and its allies in October 1944, men such as SS Haupsturmführer Joseph Stieglitz oversaw the capture and deportation of a Zigeuner village near Nagylengyel in western Hungary.[56]

See also[]


  1. The United States of Atlantis, see eg., pg. 30, HC.
  2. Broadway Revival, pg. 456, loc. 6638, loc. ebook
  3. Ibid, pg. 76, loc. 1093.
  4. See, e.g., pg. 76, loc. 1093
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid, see, e.g. pg. 273, loc. 3964.
  7. And the Last Trump Shall Sound, pg. 25, loc. 338, ebook.
  8. See, e.g., Atlantis and Other Places, pgs. 124-131, HC.
  9. Asimov's Science Fiction, November/December, 2019, Vol. 43 Nos. 11 & 12, pgs. 50-51.
  10. The Gladiator, pg. 262.
  11. See, e.g., The Gladiator, HC, pg. 140.
  12. Ibid., pg. 256.
  13. See, e.g., We Install and Other Stories, loc. 417-820.
  14. Joe Steele, pg. 98.
  15. Ibid. pg. 106
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid. pg., 87.
  18. Ibid., pgs. 134-135.
  19. Ibid., pg. 195.
  20. Ibid. pg. 196.
  21. Ibid., pg. 202-203.
  22. Ibid., pgs. 205-207.
  23. Ibid, pg. 212.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Ibid. pg. 214.
  26. Ibid., pg. 215.
  27. Ibid., pgs. 223-224.
  28. Ibid., pg. 234.
  29. Ibid., pgs. 235-236.
  30. Ibid., pgs. 239-242.
  31. Ibid., pg. 243.
  32. Ibid., pgs. 248-249.
  33. Ibid., pgs. 265-267.
  34. Ibid, pg. 268.
  35. Ibid, pgs. 270-271.
  36. Ibid., pgs. 290-292.
  37. Ibid., pg. 295-296.
  38. Ibid. pg. 299.
  39. Ibid., pg. 333.
  40. Ibid., pg. 431.
  41. Leviathans: Armored Skies, pgs. 292-293, loc. 4174-4190, ebook.
  42. Ibid., pg. 293-294, loc. 4195-4210.
  43. Ibid., pgs. 292-299, loc. 4174-4290, ebook.
  44. https://www.tor.com/2020/11/30/no-period-harry-turtledove/
  45. Or Even Eagle Flew, pgs. 1-2, loc. 48-53, ebook.
  46. Through Darkest Europe, pg. 140. Hc.
  47. Ibid. pg. 147.
  48. Ibid. pg. 147, 201.
  49. The Two Georges, pg. 241, MPB.
  50. Ibid., pgs. 239-240.
  51. See e.g.: Atlantis and Other Places, pgs. 341-342, HC.
  52. Ibid., pgs. 343-344.
  53. Asimov's Science Fiction, September/October, 2017, Vol. 41 Nos. 9 & 10, pg. 94-95.
  54. Ibid., pg. 100.
  55. Ibid., pg. 99.
  56. Ibid., pg. 92-99.