|Fifth French Republic|
|Government:||Unitary semi‑presidential republic|
|Status in OTL:||Active|
France is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and that also comprises various overseas islands and territories located on other continents. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine River to the Atlantic Ocean.
France is the largest state in the European Union by area and the third largest in Europe behind Russia and Ukraine. France has been a major power for many centuries with strong economic, cultural, military and political influence. During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonized great parts of North America; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Pacific islands.
For most of its history, France was an absolutist monarchy. After the French Revolution unseated the monarch of France in the last decade of the 18th century, France went through a series of governmental systems and constitutions. Since 1958, it has been under the government of the Fifth Republic.
- 1 France in Agent of Byzantium
- 2 France in Atlantis
- 3 France in "Before the Beginning"
- 4 France in The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump
- 5 France in "The Catcher in the Rhine"
- 6 France in Crosstime Traffic
- 7 France in A Different Flesh
- 8 France in The Guns of the South
- 9 France in "The Garden Gnome Freedom Front"
- 10 France in The Hot War
- 11 France in In the Presence of Mine Enemies
- 12 France in "Ils ne passeront pas"
- 13 France in Joe Steele
- 14 France in The Man With the Iron Heart
- 15 France in "Les Mortes d'Arthur"
- 16 France in "News From the Front"
- 17 France in "The Old Grind"
- 18 France in Ruled Britannia
- 19 France in "Someone Is Stealing the Great Throne Rooms of the Galaxy"
- 20 France in Southern Victory
- 21 France in Through Darkest Europe
- 22 France in The Two Georges
- 23 France in "Uncle Alf"
- 24 France in The War That Came Early
- 25 France in Worldwar
- 26 See also
- 27 References
France in Agent of Byzantium
France in Atlantis
France may lay claim to the discovery of Atlantis.
In 1452, the first humans to visit Atlantis were a Breton fishing crew, led by Francois Kersauzon. Subsequently, settlements led by Kersauzon were established in the continent, co-existing relatively peacefully with those established by the English and the Basques. After the province of Brittany was annexed to France in the next decades, the Breton colonies became French possessions. Thus, in a sense, France can claim to have "discovered" Atlantis.
In the 1750s, conflict in Europe spread to Atlantis. France and England were at war, and so the Atlanteans of each respective country went to war as well. Spain sided with France. Within a matter of months, the English defeated the French forces, and drove France out of Atlantis. France also lost most of its possessions in Terranova and India. From then on, France would be second-best to Great Britain as a power in the world.
When the Atlantean War of Independence broke out a dozen years later, France watched eagerly. Upon the Army of the Atlantean Assembly's victory at the Battle of Grigsby's Field and the publication of the Proclamation of Liberty, King Louis XVI declared war on Britain, and sent troops in Atlantis under the command of the Marquis de La Fayette. France's support proved quite important to Atlantis' ultimate victory over and independence from Britain.
In the early 19th century, France and Britain were again at war. The United States of Atlantis used the opportunity to support independence movements in the British colonies remaining in Terranova. Britain was not so completely distracted by France that it couldn't launch the punishing War of 1809 against Atlantis.
France in "Before the Beginning"
France played a substantial role in changing the course of human history when Inspector Jacob Dreyfus, in the course of investigating the death of cosmologist Jacques Carpentier, demonstrated that the Jews were indeed God's chosen people. France was one of the first countries to convert en masse to Judaism.
France in The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump
Frankia was invaded by Alemania during the First Sorcerous War and saw particularly brutal fighting in which both sides cast toxic spells. Even three quarters of a century after the war, residue from these toxic spells still lingered in eastern Frankia.
France in "The Catcher in the Rhine"
France in Crosstime Traffic
France in Curious Notions
In the alternate designated as 3477 by Crosstime Traffic, France and its allies Britain and Russia were defeated by Germany in the brief war of 1914. France and Britain again went to war with Germany in the late 1930s, but were again defeated, which cleared the way for Germany to take full control of Europe.
France in The Disunited States of America
France remained one of the world's great powers well into the late 21st Century.
France in The Gladiator
France saw the first popular front in response to Nazi occupation during World War II. While it failed then, decades later, France saw another popular front which turned the country away from the United States and towards the Soviet Union, making France among the first countries in Western Europe to adopt communism.
France in In High Places
As with the rest of Europe, the Kingdom of France lost some 80% of its population to the Great Black Deaths. In the aftermath of that disaster, a charismatic leader named Henri arose in 1381 with a new message, but the Pope in Avignon and the reigning King of France opposed Henri and executed him as a heretic when he declared himself a Son of God. The day after the execution, both the King and the Pope were killed when a church collapsed on them. Henri's followers saw the accidental death of the Pope and the King as a miracle, and his faith was affirmed.
Muslims had invaded and captured much of southern France, including Lyon and Marseille, and creating two kingdoms, one principality, and one emirate, leaving a rump Kingdom of Versailles in the north. By the 21st century, "France" referred to a region, not any present-day political entity. However, the language spoken in the Kingdom of Versailles was still known as "French".
France in A Different Flesh
The Kingdom of France established the model of absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings, which was copied by King Charles of England in the mid 17th century. This resulted in English dissidents making a mass exodus to North America, leading to the eventual founding of the Federated Commonwealths of America.
France in The Guns of the South
In 1864, while the United States were entangled in the Second American Revolution, France installed a monarchy in Mexico. In 1867, French troops assisted in quelling a republican uprising in Mexico, thus ensuring the survival of their client state.
France in "The Garden Gnome Freedom Front"
In the 1990s, France saw the rise of a new fad: the "liberation" of garden gnomes. Numerous small secret organizations devoted to this activity arose, among them the Garden Gnome Freedom Front of the Rouen area.
France in The Hot War
The French Fourth Republic had contributed troops to the UN forces during the Korean War. France also maintained an occupation zone in West Germany. Consequently, when the United States used atomic bombs in Manchuria on 23 January 1951, France was the target of a Soviet retaliatory attack on 1 February, which destroyed Nancy and Rouen. The United Kingdom and West Germany also suffered the loss of two cities each.
French President Vincent Auriol immediately contacted U.S. President Harry Truman, as did British Prime Minister Clement Attlee. Both invoked the NATO treaty. Truman, in the hopes of mollifying his allies, ordered a mission to bomb Pechenga, the base where the Soviet bombers had flown out of. Truman even used flyers from Britain and France.
However that led to a series of tit-for-tat bombings between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. until the Soviet Union and its allies invaded West Germany on 17 February. French troops joined the rest of NATO in fighting the Soviet onslaught. However, throughout February and March, the Soviets, using their numerical superiority, made substantial gains in West Germany. As the U.S. was relying heavily on France's shipping and transportation hubs, the Soviets destroyed Bordeaux with an atomic bomb in late April. Even more devastating for France was the atomic attack on Paris in June, killing most of the government, and effectively toppling the Fourth Republic. A new Committee of National Salvation was established, with retired general and national hero Charles de Gaulle as its head.
De Gaulle's first task was to contact President Truman for aid, including medical supplies and experts in treating radiation sickness. While de Gaulle and Truman had shared a deep antipathy from the closing days of World War II, Truman realized that de Gaulle could forge a separate peace with the USSR, and so did everything he could to meet de Gaulle's requests.
France stayed in the fight, and proved more dogged in their fight than the Fourth Republic had been. As the Red Army overran northern Italy, the U.S. realized that the Soviets were targeting southern France for invasion. In response, the U.S. military scattered troops throughout Savoy and Provence. The French also set up a POW camp south of Lyon.
The U.S. finally killed Joseph Stalin by dropping a hydrogen bomb on Omsk in May, 1952. The Soviet Union agreed to negotiations in July at Versailles. While Truman led the negotiations, de Gaulle attended and supported Truman's terms.
With the war in Europe over, France began the process of rebuilding.
France in In the Presence of Mine Enemies
France was an occupied (as opposed to annexed) territory of the Greater German Reich, conquered at the beginning of the Second World War in 1940. As the French were considered Aryan, they avoided persecution. With the Axis victorious in Europe, France's colonies in Africa were divided among the Reich and Italy and its Asian colonies were carved up by Japan.
Under German rule, the motto of the French state Liberty, Equality, Fraternity! was replaced with Work, Family, Country. Though the older phrase was illegal, many French especially the pre-war generation remembered it in the next decades. When Führer Heinz Buckliger instituted reforms in the empire, people too young to remember France's independence made use of the old motto as a rallying cry as they protested in the streets.
France in "Ils ne passeront pas"
France steadfastly refused to let German forces pass Verdun, making that battle the longest and most horrible battle of World War I. Indeed, French soldiers Pierre Barres and Jacques Fonsagrive had been through such atrocity that when God's judgment came (as foretold in the Book of Revelation) in March 1916, they assumed they'd been the victims of a German weapon, and reacted quite blasely, killing all of the demonic creatures that appeared in No Man's Land.
France in Joe Steele
The government and people of France were initially hesitant to face the threat posed by Adolf Hitler's Germany. In September 1938, despite pledges of support from U.S. President Joe Steele and Soviet leader Leon Trotsky, French Premier Edouard Daladier and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed to transfer the Sudetenland to Germany after repeated demands by Hitler.
Almost a year later, Hitler was making territorial demands on Poland. Britain and France attempted to cement an alliance with Trotsky in August, 1939, who instead entered into a non-aggression pact with Hitler. Germany declared war on Poland on 1 September 1939, and Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union attacked Poland two weeks later. The Allied war effort was tentative at best, and by May 1940, Germany had occupied Norway and Denmark, and had begun the invasion of the Low Countries. In the face of these losses, Chamberlain had lost the confidence of the House of Commons, and resigned. He was succeeded by Winston Churchill.
Germany invaded France in May 1940. After six weeks, France capitulated, and British forces were driven from the Continent. France remained under German occupation until 1944, when a multi-national coalition successfully invaded France. The invaders went on to liberate of France and participate in the defeat of Germany within just under a year. While France fell under the influence of the U.S., there were sufficient leftist elements present that the U.S.S.R. soon stirred up trouble in France with popular fronts.
France in The Man With the Iron Heart
France had been humiliated by its defeat and occupation by Germany at the outset of World War II. It lay under German rule until 1944, when joint American and British forces (along with some French patriots who'd escaped their home) invaded France and began pushing Germany back. Simultaneously, German forces were being devastated in the war against the Soviet Union to the east.
By 1945, the war was over, and France occupied a portion of Western Germany. Unfortunately, the knowledge that France had had to be liberated by the Anglo-Americans was embittering to most of the French government and military. Charles de Gaulle followed a policy of minimal cooperation with his allies, while at the same time imposing a vengeful peace on its zone of Germany.
With the arrival of the German Freedom Front under Reinhard Heydrich, France found itself in the same quagmire as the US, Britain and the USSR. It responded with as much viciousness to the GFF as possible, often rivaling the USSR. Unlike the Anglo-Americans, France showed no inclination to pull out of Germany, even after a GFF agent leveled the Eiffel Tower in Paris in 1946. Even as the Americans and British actually left in 1948, the French tightened their grip on their occupation zone.
France in "Les Mortes d'Arthur"
France was the leading country of United Europe with French being its official language. In addition, French had once more become the lingua franca of international relations. No one was considered educated unless they could speak good French. Otherwise, they were viewed as parochial.
France in "News From the Front"
In April 1942, a London cab driver envied the lot of France, which surrendered early and ceased to be a war zone. By contrast, Britain continued to fight and get bombed for its trouble. In June of the same year, a Washington Post editorial pointed to France's defeat two years earlier as a harbinger of America's misfortune.
France in "The Old Grind"
France in Ruled Britannia
The Kingdom of France was one of the two great Catholic powers in western Europe; the other was Spain. Despite their shared religion, the Hapsburg dynasty that ruled Spain considered France an enemy, due to the fact that France was physically between Spain and its European territories. King Philip II fought a war with France during his reign. France provided limited support for the Protestant anti-Hapsburg rebellion in the Netherlands in the 1570s and '80s.
France in "Someone Is Stealing the Great Throne Rooms of the Galaxy"
France was a second-rate country on a third-rate continent on the most insignificant planet in the galaxy. Its palace at Versailles became the scene of the fourth theft of a throne room and antechamber during a wave of similar crimes.
The Space Patrol ordered Rufus Q Shupilluliumash to begin investigating the series of crimes in France. He was promptly arrested by the French gendarmerie, without even having insulted the French as he did the people on almost every other planet he visited. He found the food terrible. When he expressed this to his local Space Patrol colleagues, they chorused "And the portions are so small!" Rufus wondered how they knew what the prison food was like.
France in Southern Victory
France, along with Britain, was a staunch ally of the Confederate States for most of that country's history. During the period of the Second Empire, Emperor Napoleon III supported the Confederate States in the War of Secession, allowing France to install Maximilian I as Emperor of Mexico in violation of the Monroe Doctrine, which the defeated United States was unable to enforce.
France went down to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, losing the province of Alsace and and most of the province of Lorraine. The rapid Prussian victory over one of the architects of the Union's humiliating defeat was one of the factors leading to the eventual alliance between the United States and the German Empire.
Now reconstituted as the Third Republic, France also supported the Confederates in the Second Mexican War but, unlike Britain, committed very few military forces to North America beyond a naval raid on Los Angeles, California.
France later joined the CS, Britain, and Russia in the Quadruple Entente and was invaded and defeated by Germany in the Great War, after three years of bloody stalemate. The pivotal moment came at the Battle of Verdun, when the French military was defeated by Germany despite the French government's announcement that it would fight on to victory. Humiliated and disillusioned, the French military began a mutiny in 1917. In Spring 1917, Russia exited the war, and France quickly sued for peace itself.
Following the war, and the harsh peace terms imposed by the Germans, the Third Republic collapsed as the French turned to the revanchist monarchist party Action Francaise to restore France to its former position of power. In 1930, Charles XI became King of France and cooperated with his fellow Entente revanchist leaders in the rearmament of the Entente. Confederate President Jake Featherston sent Anne Colleton to France as special ambassador plenipotentiary in 1934. She returned to Virginia in July 1936 aboard the new ocean liner Charles XI with an agreement from the French government.
With Britain, France supported the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War and defeated the German-backed Monarchists. In 1940, Charles called for plebiscites in Alsace-Lorraine, which had been the separate French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Upon the death of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1941, France launched an attack on Germany which it had coordinated with similar attacks by Britain and Russia.
The Entente was able to maintain the offensive until 1943. Although initially the most belligerent of the Entente, France quickly became a junior partner to Britain. Germany halted the Anglo-French force drive in the Netherlands, and turned it back. Early in 1944, Paris became the second Entente capital destroyed by a German superbomb. Charles XI was killed. His successor, Louis XIX, was initially defiant, but soon sued for peace.
France in Through Darkest Europe
France was a European kingdom with its fair share of Aquinists. In AD 2018 the French King Jean XXIII actively joined the neighboring Grand Duchy of Italy in the war on terror. Both the King and his son survived separate Aquinist assassination attempts in that year.
France in The Two Georges
France and Spain were partners in the Holy Alliance. As such, France controlled North Africa west of the Ottoman Empire and Central Africa excluding the coastal regions which were British African Possessions and Portuguese Angola and Mozambique. It did include the island of Madagascar. France also controlled Indochina. It had lost New France (renamed the province of Quebec) to Great Britain during the Seven Years' War and so had no North American possessions.
France in "Uncle Alf"
In 1929, France was still occupied by the Kaiserreich and quite restive. Feldwebel Adolf Hitler of the Feldgendarmerie was sent to Lille, France to capture a communist agitator, Jacques Doriot. He was disgusted by the degraded status of the French, and was quite confident that Germany had done the right thing in occupying the country.
France in The War That Came Early
In September 1938, the French Third Republic, like Britain, was obligated by treaty to protect Czechoslovakia from German aggression, French Premier Edouard Daladier and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain were desperate to avoid the need to fight another war against Germany. Thus, both were prepared to allow Adolf Hitler to seize the Sudetenland unchallenged. However, when news of the assassination of Konrad Henlein reached the conference, Daladier and Chamberlain both assumed Hitler had arranged the event to give himself an excuse to invade Czechoslovakia. He had not, but he seized upon the opportunity to do so anyway, prompting France and Britain to go to war with Germany.
French troops did cross over into German territory in October 1938. French military intelligence was convinced that Germany was far stronger militarily than it actually was, so little fighting was done on German soil. Once Czechoslovakia was subdued, Germany turned on France with a vengeance. Simultaneously, Germany invaded the Low Countries before invading France proper in an attempt to implement the Schlieffen Plan, much as it had in 1914. Throughout much the remainder of 1938 and into the Spring of 1939, it did appear that the Germans would successfully take Paris. Paris proper was even subject to aerial bombardment. However, Anglo-French forces were able to finally bring the German drive to a halt in April 1939.
After nearly two years of warfare which saw only the slowest of gains in forcing German troops out of France, as well as the loss of Norway to German occupation, Chamberlain and Daladier accepted a mid-1940 proposal made by Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess in which both Britain and France ended their war with Germany, and joined Germany's war against the Soviet Union. By the end of 1940, French troops were fighting in Poland and in the Soviet Union proper. This move was not universally popular.
Still, the new coalition was quite successful as 1940 passed into 1941. By mid-1941, French troops were part had pushed deep into Russian territory. However, Daladier made certain to keep his country's options open. In the Spring of 1941, the British military, in an unprecedented move, overthrew the government of Neville Chamberlain's successor, Sir Horace Wilson The interim government then declared war on Germany.
France did not follow immediately follow suit. Indeed, for much of the rest of the year, Britain was concerned that Hitler might convince France to attack the U.K. France did not follow this plan, instead continuing France's war in Russia, while simultaneously taking steps in the event of renewed war with Germany. In the summer, France began supplying the Spanish Republic again. Closer to home, Daladier ordered the Maginot Line expanded from the Belgian border to the English Channel. The move was not unnoticed.
France also began negotiations with the British and the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, negotiations had been completed, and France ceased to be at war with the USSR. This became official one night when French forces launched green flares into the sky. French troops, despite German efforts, quickly surrendered en masse to the Soviets as part of the political realignment. They were then returned to French territory.
After the dissolution of the Hess Agreement, the Second World War continued on as a series of almost isolated conflicts among a relatively stable line-up of belligerents from 1942 to late 1943. Britain, France, and the USSR concentrated on defeating Germany in Europe and in North Africa. Japan battled the Western powers in the Pacific. The Spanish Civil War raged on with increased Western support. While Britain and France were at war with Japan, they could spare few resources for the fight, and the U.S. had to shoulder the burden. Conversely, while the U.S. was able to provide financial aid and supplies to the Allies, no state of war existed between the U.S. and Germany.
With the return of a two-front war, Hitler's popularity at home waned throughout in 1942 and 1943. In the West, the Allies made substantial gains in the Low Countries. In the East, Soviet troops pushed through Ukraine towards Poland. The approaching Allied pincers continued to gradually but steadily throughout the next year and a half.
After Hitler declared war on the United States in March 1944, several military leaders formed the Committee for the Salvation of the German Nation, with General Heinz Guderian as their leader. When Hitler decided to broadcast a speech from Münster in an attempt to regain the country's trust, the group successfully assassinated him with a bomb, despite the heavy security measures the SS put into place. A civil war broke out almost immediately. Several of Hitler's would-be successors were arrested or killed. Ultimately, Guderian and the Committee triumphed, and fighting ceased on all fronts in Europe.
Germany negotiated a peace treaty with Britain, France and the Soviet Union. (The U.S. also participated in the negotiations, but in a very junior capacity in light of the lack of U.S. troops in Europe.) Germany agreed to withdraw from the Low Countries, Denmark and Norway along with the areas of the USSR it still occupied (mostly Belarus and Ukraine). In return, the pre-war annexation of Austria was confirmed and the Sudetenland annexation which was the casus belli was allowed. Czechoslovakia was broken up into the puppet state of Slovakia and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
In the end, France paid a steep price for almost no gain.
France in Worldwar
The French Third Republic had been a member of the Allies until it was defeated by Germany in 1940 during a blitzkrieg campaign at the onset of World War II. In the aftermath, France and her empire was dived into Free France, which sided with the Allies, and Vichy France, which sided with the Axis.
When the Race arrived in June 1942, Spain was one of their landing points. After subduing Spain, they then invaded Vichy France from across the Pyrenees Throughout the war, the Race fought the Germans for control of France, with the help of the Royal Air Force, operating out of the UK. The only major operations in France occurred during 1943, when the Race launched an offensive that drove to the Rhine river. This was halted due to the defection of Shiplord Straha, to the US, so southern France was instead used as a launching pad for the failed invasion of the United Kingdom. After this fiasco, the Race continued with its drive into southern Germany, only to be blunted by Germany's first atomic bomb. For the rest of the war, France remained a major theater of operations mainly for the RAF, until the Peace of Cairo in 1944. There, the whole of France was recognized as German territory and the Race withdrew back into Spain. Vichy France was disbanded and absorbed into Germany while the rest of its empire was annexed by the Race. Free France was its self reduced to the South Pacific islands of French Polynesia, with their headquarters in Tahiti.
In the years after the peace, southern France was a largely lawless area where smugglers, pickpockets, ginger dealers, thieves, political subversives, German secret policemen and members of the Race lived in close quarters. In 1965, tensions between Germany and the Race erupted into the Race-German War. France was drawn into the conflict when the Race attempted to open a secondary front by invading southern France from Spain. Although this invasion was soundly defeated, France suffered atomic strikes in the cities of Lyon and Marseilles.
As the war quickly proved disastrous for Germany, the surviving German government sought peace, using the Soviet Union as a mediator. Among the terms of the Treaty of Moscow was the creation of an independent Fourth Republic of France, with Jacques Doriot as its most important human official. Although the Race didn't occupy France, the Fourth Republic relied on the Race's protection from external threats. Internally, it was in many respects its own worst enemy: groups informally known as "purification squads" made it their business to hunt down and round up any French citizens who collaborated with the Germans. Given the duration of the German occupation, virtually everyone had some dealings with Germans, and so could be called a collaborator with very little evidence.
- Vichy France, for more specific information about France in some World War II-based stories.
- Free France, especially relevant to the Worldwar Franchise.
- Ecnarf, an apparent geographic analog of France in "Running of the Bulls".
- Valmiera, a Derlavaian kingdom in Darkness whose history is broadly based on France.
- Aquilonia (at the Conan wiki), a rough geographic analog of France in Conan of Venarium.
- Futureshocks, pg. 107, Lou Anders, ed.
- Ibid. pg. 107.
- The Case of the Toxic Spell Dump, p. 12.
- See, e.g., Atlantis and Other Places, pgs. 124-125, HC.
- Curious Notions, pg. 18-19., pb.
- Ibid., pg. 27.
- Ibid. pg. 43.
- The Gladiator, pgs 20-22, HC.
- See, e.g., Bombs Away, pg. 88, ebook.
- Ibid. pg. 15.
- Ibid., pgs. 53-55.
- Ibid., pg. 65-70.
- Ibid., pg. 86.
- Ibid., pgs. 87-90.
- Ibid., pgs. 110-118.
- Ibid., pg. 134.
- Ibid., pgs. 309-311.
- Ibid., pgs. 427-430.
- Fallout, loc. 101, ebook.
- Ibid., pgs. 6-7, hc, loc 75-126.
- Ibid., loc. 1928.
- Ibid, loc. 5535.
- Ibid., loc. 4263-4335.
- Armistice, pgs. 73-78, ebook.
- Ibid., pg. 153.
- Ibid., pgs. 155-157.
- In the Presence of Mine Enemies, pg. 25.
- Ibid., pgs. 25-26.
- Ibid., pg. 306.
- Ibid., pgs. 306-307.
- Ibid., pg. 422.
- Joe Steele, pgs. 202-203.
- Ibid., pgs. 214-215.
- Ibid., pgs. 222-223.
- Ibid., pgs. 223-224.
- Ibid, pg. 290, 295-296.
- Ibid, pgs. 333-334.
- Atlantis and Other Places, p. 99.
- Ibid., p. 118.
- Map The Two Georges, frontispiece.
- See e.g.: Atlantis and Other Places, pgs. 341-342, HC.
- Ibid., pg.343.
- Ibid., pg.338.
- Hitler's War, pg.s 8-16.
- Ibid., e.g., pgs. 36-39.
- The Big Switch, generally at pgs., 200-220.
- Ibid., generally pg 312.
- Coup d'Etat, pgs. 152-154.
- Ibid., pg. 187.
- Ibid., pg. 189.
- Ibid., pgs. 205-206.
- Ibid., pg. 233.
- Ibid., pg. 386.
- Ibid. pgs. 389-395
- Last Orders pgs. 269-70.
- Ibid., pg. 300.
- Ibid., pg. 382.
- Ibid, pg. 318.
- Ibid, pgs. 341-343.