|Government:||Part of a Constitutional monarchy|
|Status in OTL:||Active|
England is the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total population of the United Kingdom, whilst the mainland territory of England occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Bristol Channel and English Channel.
England became a unified state during the 10th century and takes its name from the Angles, one of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in the territory during the 5th and 6th centuries. The capital of England is London, which is the largest urban area in Great Britain.
Many Harry Turtledove stories feature characters referring to the United Kingdom as "England", which remains a common, if incorrect, colloquialism. Thus, in most stories with a Point of Divergence after 1707, characters who refer to England usually mean Great Britain. This probably applies to the Atlantis Series as well.
England in Agent of Byzantium
The Anglelanders settled in Britannia when the Western Roman Empire withdrew its legions in the 4th century (hence the Angle name of Angleland) eventually forming a kingdom which continued to the 14th century. Being the neighbors (and in many cases, the enemies) of the Franco-Saxons, they had some common interests with the Eastern Roman Empire, which bordered the Franco-Saxons in the other direction. However, Anglelander-Roman alliances were temporary and fraught with mutual suspicion, as when a few spies from each nation colluded in 1315 to discover the "Unholy Trinity" behind hellpowder.
England in Atlantis
England was on the verge of civil war in 1452. When Edward Radcliffe and his sons learned of the existence of Atlantis, they saw an opportunity to escape from England's more oppressive institutions, the war included. Subsequently, the war drove even more refugees to Atlantis, creating the colonies of New Hastings, Freetown, and Bredestown.
The strong presence of English settlers in Atlantis insured that the conflicts of the home island would impact the Atlanteans, many of whom wanted England kept at a distance.
Nonetheless, English affairs found their way onto Atlantean shores. In 1470, the Earl of Warwick, a one-time supporter of King Edward IV was exiled to Atlantis. He initiated a brief tyrannical reign over New Hastings before he was toppled and killed.
After the English Reformation, a variety of monarchs tried with varying degrees of success to impose Anglicanism on the Atlanteans. While several settlements were officially Anglican by the time of the Atlantean War of Independence, far more English Atlanteans clung to Catholicism than did Englishmen, and the government did not have the stomach for the difficult task of suppressing recusancy in the always-willful colony.
Another century later, England again asserted itself in Atlantean affairs when the sundry pirates and corsairs who made their base in Avalon, Atlantis grew intolerable to English shipping. English naval forces joined with Dutch and Atlantean ships to form an armada to subdue the pirates once and for all. Despite this cooperation, Atlantean political leaders were able to keep the mother country at arms length.
In the 18th century, after England had become the core of the Kingdom of Great Britain, England's traditional rivalry with France spilled over into Atlantis, as soldiers and subjects of both England did battle with the subjects of France and Spain, with England ultimately pushing France out of Atlantis and greatly expanding the territory under its control.
However, these gains would prove short-lived. A generation later, Atlanteans launched a revolution that resulted in independence for all British Atlantean colonies.
England in Crosstime Traffic
Crosstime Traffic was aware of an alternate in which the Spanish Armada conquered England in 1588 and Spain created an empire that bordered Russia. Footage taken in this alternate was shown to Jeremy Solters and his fellow students in US history class.
England in In High Places
In an alternate where the Great Black Deaths killed 80% of the population of Europe, England never became an important power. Instead, it was Europe's backwater (which in turn was the backwater of the world). The English language was in general spoken only in England; people of other countries had no special reason to study it and English merchants abroad usually spoke French or Arabic. As noted by Annette Klein, the English of this timeline was very different from that of the home timeline, and she could only understand about half the words. She thought it might have evolved from the dialect of Yorkshire.
England in A Different Flesh
Beginning in the reign of King James I, England established the most successful colonial empire in the New World. James' son Charles I adopted the French "divine right of kings" model for his monarchy in the mid 17th century. The absolutist tyranny the state imposed upon its citizens led to an exodus of people fleeing to the colonies of North America. In the 18th century, those colonies rebelled, becoming the independent Federated Commonwealths of America in 1738.
In 1805, England was ruled by a monarch who was regarded as a tyrant (from an American perspective, at least).
England in "Islands in the Sea"
England in "The Old Grind"
Fenia traveled to England, where she saved Brother Ethelred's church from a fire set by Rollo's Vikings. Fenia, who found England uninteresting, met up with Rollo and convinced him that the European mainland was likely to have better loot. Rollo then planned his historic expedition to Francia.
England in Ruled Britannia
England was ruled by Queen Elizabeth from 1558 until 1588, when it was invaded and conquered by a Spanish army under the Duke of Parma. Spain's King Philip II overthrew Elizabeth and administered England as a part of the Spanish Empire through the satellite monarchs Queen Isabella and King Albert. This continued until Philip's death in 1598, at which point Isabella and Albert were overthrown by an uprising organised by William and Robert Cecil. The Spaniards were expelled, and Elizabeth was restored to the throne.
England in "Suffer a Sorceress"
A number of English mercenaries served in Emperor Alexios' Varangian Guard in Constantinople. Princess Anna Komnene found their language harsh and guttural, but was impressed by their caustic adjective "feckless." This word perfectly described her husband Nikephoros Bryennios, even if she didn't know what a "feck" was.
England in Through Darkest Europe
England was a tiny backwater kingdom in the British Isles at the northwestern tip of Europe. It controlled the region known as Wales, and had a northern border with the Kingdom of Scotland. England had sufficient off-shore oil to make them a player in the game of international finance, and its monarchy was comparatively forward thinking and anti-Aquinist. However, England was also one of a handful of places in the modern world where smallpox could still be a danger.
England in "Two Thieves"
English exiles had served in Emperor Alexios' Varangian Guard in 11th-12th century Constantinople. The Shytowners who bordered New Constantinople also called their language "English", but Alexios found it to bear very little resemblance to the earlier tongue.
England in "The Yorkshire Mammoth"
Mega fauna such as cave bears, dire wolves, and saber-toothed tigers vanished from England, Wales and Scotland during the Roman period, but survived in Ireland until the Norman invasion. The woolly rhinoceros went extinct during reign of either Elizabeth I or James I at the latest.
However, the very early farmers of Yorkshire saw the value of taming the woolly mammoth and using them as beasts of burden rather than hunting them to extinction centuries ago. This custom essentially died out in the later 20th century, as the glaciers in the northern part of the world began to melt. However, wild mammoths continued to roam the edges of the ice.
- Dunlin, an apparent geographic analog of England and/or Britain in "Running of the Bulls."
- Kingdom of Morgaf, a geographic analog of England and/or Britain in "Down in the Bottomlands."