The Emperor of Mexico (Spanish: Emperador de México) was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th Century.
With the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain in 1821, Mexico became an independent monarchy—the First Mexican Empire (1822–1823), ruled by Agustín I, of the House of Iturbide. The monarchy was replaced by the First Republic of Mexico. The Second Mexican Empire (1864–1867), ruled by Maximilian I, was established due to the efforts of Mexican Conservatives and the French government after the president, Benito Juárez, was forced into exile. The Second Empire had very little foreign support or recognition, and quickly collapsed after France withdrew its military aid.
Both Empires ended with the reigning Emperor being forcibly deposed and put to death in short order.
Maximilian I was installed, with French support, as Emperor of Mexico in 1864. The United States were entangled in the Second American Revolution and could not oppose this move. One of the first acts of Maximilian's government was to extend diplomatic recognition to the Confederate States, in the hope that this new nation would become a useful ally. After admitting failure to suppress the Revolution, the United States made a lukewarm attempt to assist Benito Juárez's republican insurgency, but their resources were soon diverted to the invasion of the Canadas. With French help, Maximilian's forces inflicted a number of defeats on Juárez in 1867. Maximilian's throne seemed reasonably secure by 1868.
The restoration of empire in Mexico and the installation of a new Emperor by France came concurrently with the USA's defeat in the War of Secession. From 1862, most of Mexico's northern border was shared with the Confederate States, an ally of France. The Confederate States recognized Maximilian I's rule and exploited the Hapsburg dynasty in Mexico, while the U.S. was helpless to oppose it throughout the 19th and early 20th Centuries.
The Mexican Hapsburgs (unlike their Austro-Hungarian cousins) were firmly in the Entente camp throughout the Great War and the Second Great War. The 1920s saw an attempt at a revolution against the Hapsburgs, but the revolutionaries were defeated with covert help from the C.S., despite some support from the U.S. government. The U.S. defeated both the C.S. and Mexico during the Second Great War; however, as the U.S. was much more focused occupation and reintegration of the vanquished CSA, it left the Emperor on the throne.
The series gives very little specific information about the lives of the various emperors and their succession. The following list is based on the details provided in the series.
Maximilian II: reigned c 1880(?)-????. Maximilian II maintained the close ties between his country and France. In 1881, with his country in desperate need of money, Maximilian II decided to sell the Mexican provinces of Sonora and Chihuahua to the Confederate States, sparking the Second Mexican War.
Francisco José I (?)
The emperor reigning during the Great War is never named in the text. As there is an Emperor Francisco José II during the Second Great War, the moderators of this Wiki have tentatively identified the unnamed emperor as Francisco José I.
Maximilian III: reigned c. 1920-1941. During the Mexican Civil War of the 1920s, the Popular Revolutionaries sought to remove Maximilian from the throne. The United States provided tepid support for the Popular Revolutionaries, whereas Maximilian's royalist faction received substantial (yet unofficial) support from their long-time ally, the Confederate States. Maximilian held his throne, eventually passing it to Francisco José II.
While Maximilian was viewed negatively even by his allies, the leaders of the Popular Revolutionaries were as equally prone to cheating their soldiers as the imperialists, alienating Mexicans who would have otherwise fought against the emperor.
Francisco José II
See: Francisco José II of Mexico: reigned 1941-incumbent at series' end, 1945.
- The Guns of the South, pg. 229.
- Ibid. pg. 376.
- See Inconsistencies (Southern Victory)
- American Front, pg. 18, mmpb. This is the only time Maximilian II is specified.
- How Few Remain, pg. 43, mmpb.
- Ibid., e.g,. pg. 26.
- Blood and Iron, pg. 338, mmpb.
- Ibid.; The Center Cannot Hold, pgs. 112-114, 177-179, mmpb.
- Ibid., pg. 108, mmpb.
- Ibid., pg. 177.