In the late 15th century, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile turned their eyes toward Granada. The Granada War began in 1482, with Christian forces capturing Alhama de Granada in February 1482. The Christian force was made up of troops provided by Castilian nobles, towns, and the Santa Hermandad, as well as Swiss mercenaries. The Catholic Church also encouraged other Christian countries to offer their troops and their finances to the war effort. Meanwhile, civil war erupted in Granada as a result of succession struggles in the Nasrid ruling house. By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On 25 November 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On 2 January 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII Boabdil, gave up complete control of Granada, to the Castilian coalition.
By 1491, Spain's war against the Moors of Granada was nearly won. Jaime Nosénada's committee report urged a complete concentration of Spain's resources to bring the war to a swift and successful conclusion, and advised against diverting any resources to Cristóbal Colón's proposed voyage of exploration.