Turtledove
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This category lists the various heads of state of China (in its various forms) who appear in the works of Harry Turtledove. They do not necessarily appear in their capacity of head of state.

For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (c. 2000 BCE). In 221 BCE, king of the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire. This was by no means the final unification of China, as there were periods of splintering and rival empires and emperors. The emperor usually served as the head of state, although their powers could vary depending on the time period.

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in 1911 and established a presidential republic. Despite a brief abortive attempt by warlord Yuan Shikai to proclaim himself emperor in 1915-1916, the republic was permanently re-established in 1916. Another attempt to restore the Qing dynasty in 1917 lasted for about twelve days before failing.  

Over the next decade, the Kuomintang set about establishing a unified China. From 1916 to 1928, the head of state was the president. With China firmly a single party state under the KMT, the title changed to chairman of the nationalist government. The KMT ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949. After the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Chinese Communist Party defeated the KMT in mainland China and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to its present capital of Taipei, on Taiwan.

In the PRC, the initial office of the head of state was the Chairman of the People's Republic of China, which was the title used until 1975. From 1975 to 1982, the head of state was the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. In 1983, the head of state became the president. As is often the case in communist states, the true power in the PRC usually rests with the communist party leader, rather than the head of state or government. Presidents who've held office since 1989 have also doubled as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, and so have managed to be more than simple figureheads. While the president has been limited to two consecutive five-year terms, in February, 2018, the Party began the process of removing those terms limits, opening up the possibility of the presidency becoming a life-time position.

In Taiwan, the head of state is still the President.

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