The Sixth U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery was a Union regiment of the American Civil War. As its name suggests, the Sixth was a unit made up of black soldiers, most of whom had been slaves prior to joining up. The Sixth was organized from the 2nd Mississippi Heavy Artillery (African Descent) in March, 1864. In April, 1864, the Sixth, along with the Second U.S. Colored Light Artillery, both under the overall command of Major Lionel F. Booth, were dispatched to reinforce Fort Pillow. They acquitted themselves bravely when the fort was attacked and overrun by Confederate forces commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest later that same month. Many of the Sixth were targeted by the vengeful Confederates.

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